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G* v cr«»eat 


the labour 

January 19*75 


UN. Seminar 

Fighting cheesecake and chauvinism 

r ~ M 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Guelph, University of Windsor, York University and University of Toronto Libraries 



Monthly Journal Canada Department of Labour 

Hon. John Munro 


T.M. Eberlaa 

Deputy Minister 

Jack E. Nugent, Editor 
Jean A. Sattar, Associate Editor 
George Sanderson, Tad Welnsteln, 
Kathleen E. Whitehunt. Staff Writers 
Edith Saga, Editorial Assistant 

William S. Drinkwater, Chief Publications Officer 
Oswald Mamo, Editor, La Gazette du Travail 
J. Harold Brazeau, Production 

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1 + 

Labour Travail 
Canada Canada 

Vol 75 No 1 January iQ7i 



10 Fighting Cheesecake and Chauvinism 

by Shirley Plowman 

23 Somethings Gotta Give, Somewhere 
by George Dobie 

31 Immigration A Look At Present Trends 

by George Sanderson 



You Pays Your Money and Takes Your Choice 

47 A Concerned, But Optimistic Outlook 

by Jack Williams 

50 Aiming Toward Solidarity '75 

51 New Labour Legislation for Newfoundland 

52 What Did the Government do Right? 

53 Collective Bargaining Under Scrutiny 
by Ted Wemstein 

57 Helping People to Help Themselves 

by Louise Rickenbacker 


3 News Bnefs 

59 50Ye,)isArjo 

60 Boot Reviews 

61 Forum 

64 Prices & Employment 

68 Conciliation 

70 Additions to the L ibrary 

73 Ldhoui Sutistii s 

A Message 
from the Minister 

First, may I take this opportunity to extend to you my best wishes for the New 

The beginning of each year serves to bring back memories, and at the same time 
to focus attention on the future. For us in the Department of Labour, this year has a 
particular significance because it marks our 75th Anniversary. And indeed, many 
changes have taken place since the Earl of Minto gave Royal Assent to the creation of 
the Department in 1 900. 

The Labour Gazette itself was established by an Act of Parliament, suitably re- 
flecting its vital importance in providing factual and timely information on the subject of 
labour. More than that, The Labour Gazette now represents an invaluable forum for 
the exchange and discussion of varied views and opinions on a subject that concerns 
us all. 

Communication and discussion such as this must now be viewed as essential if 
the tripartnership of labour, management and government is to resolve the problems 
facing it: problems of deep social and economic significance not only for the partner- 
ship but for Canadians everywhere. The need for this on-going tripartite involvement is 
fully recognized by my Department which, in the year ahead, will act as the catalyst in 
bringing the parties together. 

For although the federal labour administration can look back on 75 years of real 
progress, now is not the time to dwell on past achievements. The challenges of the 
present and the future demand to be met. And I am confident that, with co-operation 
and goodwill on all sides, these challenges will be met. 

Celebrating 75 years of service 

Au service desCanadiensdepuis75ans 


Federal Budget Highlights 

It was a mixed bag that Finance 
Minister John Turner presented to 
Canadians on November 18 when he 
introduced his first budget since the 
July 8 tederal election That election 
was caused to a great extent by the 
budget Turner introduced last May- 
the minority Liberal Government was 
defeated on a non-confidence motion 
against the budget Many of the May 
budget provisions were reintroduced in 
November; some were amended or 
modified, others were repeated 
virtually unchanged, and still others 
dropped in place of new proposals. 

Included in the highlights of the 
budget-which forecasts a 1974-75 
surplus of $250 million on 
expenditures of $24 8 billion, and a 
1975-76 deficit on $1 billion on 
expenditures of $28.75 billion-were: 

• Personal income taxes reduced for 

1974 by a minimum of $150 and a 
maximum of $500; taxes reduced for 

1975 by a minimum $200 and a 
maximum $750 

• Income tax exemptions for the first 
$1 000 of interest income in 1974. 
extended to include any combination 
of $1,000 interest or dividend income 
in 1975. 

• Tax-free savings of $1,000 annually. 
to a limit of $10,000. for the purchase 
of a first home 

• New federal tax rates for petroleum 
and other resources 

• Special 10 per cent surtax for 
corporate profits earned between May 
1. 1974. and April 30 1975. 

• Liguor taxes increased 24 cents 
per 25-ounce bottle, wine taxes up 

6 5 cents per 25-ounce bottle, tobacco 
taxes raised two cents per package of 
20 cigarets 

• New apartment construction costs 
allowed as a deduction from other 

income for tax purposes 

• Federal sales tax cut to 5 per cent 
for building material and construction 

• Elimination of the federal sales tax 
on transportation eguipment 

• A special 5 per cent excise tax on 
motorcycles with big engines a 10 
per cent tax for privately-owned 
aircraft and all but small motor-driven 

• Special excise taxes on high 
energy-consuming vehicles, set at $20 
for the first 100 pounds over minimum 
weights. $25 on the next 100 pounds 
over minimum weights, and $30 on 
each subseguent 100 pounds 







• A taxpayer is allowed to contribute 
to a spouse's registered retirement 
savings plan as well as his own. up 
to the contribution limit 

OFY Successful 

The Department of Manpower and 
Immigration has announced that last 
summer's Opportunities for Youth 
Program was the most successful to 

Last year. 27.514 young people 
worked on 3.851 projects All projects 
terminated on August 31. and proiect 
participants were reguired to submit a 
final report and evaluation of their 

"I am extremely pleased with the 
excellent accomplishments of young 
people in the Opportunities for Youth 
Program across the country 
commented Robert Andras. Minister of 
Manpower and Immigration It is 
gratifying to see the benefits both to 
the individuals involved and the 
communities in which they worked 
Andras said, although there are no 
extensions for funding for the projects, 
many OFY participants continue their 
work on a volunteer basis Typical of 
these is a group of students who 
worked with severely mentally retarded 
children at the Ongwanada Hospital in 
Kingston Their Project Stimulation 
will continue on a part-time, volunteer 
basis The hospital has expressed 
gratitude and satisfaction for the woik 
of the students 

Andras noted that Opportunities for 
Youth projects often benefit young 
people who experience difficulty in 
finding employment during the 
summer While young women, for 
example, held 40 2 per cent of last 
year's summer jobs in the private 

The Labour Gazelle-Jan 75 

sector, they constituted 53 per cent of 
OFY project participants Andras made 
special note of the role played by 
Francophone OFY participants across 
the country Some 257 Francophone 
projects were sponsored outside the 
province of Quebec, making a 
substantial contribution to the 
bicultural heritage of Canada 

Native peoples were among the other 
beneficiaries of last year's program. 
Some 292 projects involved or 
supplied services to native peoples In 
the four summers since Opportunities 
for Youth was initiated by the Federal 
Government. 122.692 young people 
have worked on 13.534 projects. 

Minimum Wages 


Alberta's Minister of Manpower and 
Labour, Bert Hohol, has announced 
that the provincial cabinet received 
and approved recommendations from 
the Board of Industrial Relations to 
increase the minimum wage from its 
present $2 00 per hour to $2 25 per 
hour effective January 1, 1975 and to 
$2.50 per hour effective July 1, 1975 

These recommended increases will 
apply to persons 18 years of age and 
over Increases were also adopted for 
students employed part-time from the 
present rate of $1 50 per hour to 
$1.75 per hour effective January 1 
1975 and to $2 00 per hour effective 
July 1, 1975 Employees under 18 
years of age will move from the 
present rate of $1 85 per hour to 
$2 10 per hour effective January 1. 
1975 and to $2 35 per hour effective 
July 1. 1975. 

Hohol said these new rates reflect the 
substantial increases noted in the cost 
of living m recent months He further 
stated that approximately 36.000 
persons, representing about 5 1 2 per 
cent of Alberta s work-force, will be 
affected by today's announced 


Quebec's provincial minimum wage 
was boosted by more than 9 per cent 
to $2 30 an hour November 1 
because of the increasing cost of 

The 20-cent increase will probably hit 
small businessmen such as corner 
store operators the hardest, since the 
salaries they pay are generally geared 
to the minimum wage and budgets 
are worked out months in advance. 

Quebec's Department of Labour 
estimates the increase will affect 
150.000 employees across the province. 

One Step Forward, Two 

Women in the federal public service 
are losing ground in their battle for 
eguahty with men. the 1973 annual 
report of the Public Service 
Commission indicates. 

Statistics in the report show that of 
74.236 women employed in the public 
service in 1973, the highest number— 
10,564. or 4 3 per cent-earned 
between $6,500 and $6,999 annually 

That same year, there were 171.066 
men in the public service, of which 
24.109. or 9 8 per cent, were 
employed at a mean salary of $8,000 
to $8,499. In 1972. the male and 
female mean salary range was the 
same, at $7,000 to $7,499 

The Public Service Commission 
established in 1971 an Office of Egual 
Opportunity for Women to promote 
female egual employment 
opportunities In addition more than 
35 departments and agencies are 
represented on an egual opportunities 
co-ordinating committee The Privy 
Council Office has six permanent 
employees attached to the co- 
ordinator for the status of women. Yet, 
of 868 employees in the public 
service executive category, only 1 per 
cent are women About 25 per cent of 

the 20,855 scientific and professional 
employees are women: about 14 per 
cent of the 35.882 administrative and 
foreign service employees are women; 
about 11 per cent of the 20.158 
technical category employees are 
women: about 69 per cent of the 
71,122 administrative support 
employees are women: and about 55 
per cent of the 171.066 operational 
employees are women Of the 245.302 
employees in the federal public 
service. 69.7 per cent are male 

Strikes Studied 

The International Union. United 
Automobile. Aerospace and Agricultural 
Implement Workers of America (UAW) 
holds the dubious distinction of 
topping 17 other unions in Ontario in 
resorting to strikes to settle collective 

Settlement Methods in Ontario 
Collective Bargaining. 1970-1973. a 
study conducted by Dr Laurence A 
Kelly of the Queen's University 
Industrial Relations Centre, found that 
between 1970 and 1973. the UAW 
was involved in 110 settlements 
Direct bargaining settled 20 per cent 
of them; conciliation, mediation- 
arbitration and non-direct bargaining 
was successful in 45.5 per cent and 
work stoppages occurred in 34 5 per 

Kelly conducted the study by 
analyzing 1.400 Ontario collective 
agreements based on information 
published jointly by the federal and 
Ontario Departments of Labour 
covering settlements involving more 
than 250 employees in industries 
other than construction 

The union with the next highest 
incidence of strikes was the 
International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, whose members settled 31 
contracts and struck during 25.8 per 
cent of them The electrical workers in 
the International Union of Electrical 
Radio and Machine Workers were 
third, with 22 7 per cent strikes in 22 

The Labour Ga*etie-Jan 75 

contracts Next was the International 
Association of Machinists and 
Aerospace Workers, with 22 2 per cent 
of their 54 contracts settled by strikes 

At the bottom of the survey, the 
provinces nurses associations settled 
41 contracts without a single work 
stoppage as did the federal Public 
Service Alliance in agreeing to 48 

Record Demand 

Job openings for executives, 
accountants, engineers and scientists 
returned to record levels during the 
third guarter of 1974, according to the 
Technical Service Council The 
Toronto-based non-profit placement 
service reported that a survey of 
1.500 manufacturing, construction, 
consulting and mining firms across 
Canada indicated that at the end of 
September, job openings were up 1 1 
per c?nt from June and 36 per cent 
from September. 1973. 

The upturn in openings noted the 
TSC. was caused partly by the 
employers' inability to fill vacancies 
because of the number of large 
projects under way or planned in the 
pipeline, petrochemical forest products, 
coal mining and gasification industries 
Recruitment from countries such as 
Britain is still going on (LG. Sept.. p. 

Of 2.765 job openings listed with TSC 
offices. 1.174 are in Ontario. 702 in 
Quebec. 608 in the Prairies and the 
Northwest Territories. 225 in British 
Columbia and the Yukon, and 56 in 
the Atlantic provinces Opportunities in 
the Prairies have increased 60 per 
cent during the last year, more than 
any other region, reported the Council 

CBRT Grows 

The membership of the Canadian 
Brotherhood of Railway, Transport and 
General Workers increased to 38.000 
last October when the 2.400-member 
Canadian Telecommunication Union, 

Division 43 of the United Telegraph 
Workers, officially merged with it In 
an earlier referendum. 91 per cent of 
the Division 43 members voted in 
favour of disaffiliating from their 
international union and joining the 

The Brotherhood s new members, who 
are employed by Canadian National 
Railways, will be known as its 
Canadian Telecommunication Division. 

Labour Advisers Named 

U S President Gerald Ford has 
named eight labour leaders to a new 
labour-management committee that 
will advise him on the U S economy. 
John T. Dunlop of Harvard, who 
headed former President Nixon s Cost 
of Living Council, has been appointed 
co-ordinator of the committee, which 
also includes eight representatives of 

The labour members are AFL-CIO 
President George Meany. AFL-CIO 
Secretary-Treasurer Lane Kirkland. 
Steelworkers President I.W. Abel. 
Teamsters President Frank E. 
Fitzsimmons, United Auto Workers 
President Leonard Woodcock. 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
President Murray H Finley. United 
Mine Workers President Arnold Miller, 
and Seafarers President Paul Hall 

The Executive Order from the White 
House establishing the committee 
stated The Committee shall study 
and shall advise and make 
recommendations to the President with 
respect to policies that may be 
followed by labour, management, or 
the public that will promote free and 
responsible collective bargaining. 
industrial peace, sound wage and 
price policies, higher standards of 
living, increased productivity, and 
related manpower policies, and such 
other matters that could contribute to 
the longer-run economic well-being of 
the Nation." 

President Ford has repeatedly assured 

labour that he has no intention of 
reviving wage and price controls. The 
eight businessmen he has named to 
the new committee also have opposed 
a return to controls 

AFL-CIO President George Meany has 
made labours position very clear 
'Guidelines are not eguitable because 
they will not work on prices or profits 
... We all know how to control 
wages... But how do you control 
prices 9 If you don t want to set up a 
tremendous bureaucracy, just forget 
about controlling prices We will co- 
operate with across-the-board controls 
if they are enforced egually on all 
prices, incomes, profits and rents, and 
not just wages. " 

White-collar Unionists 

The desire for more pay and greater 
job security is pushing more and more 
middle-class Americans into unions. 
According to figures released by the 
US. Labor Department, more than 5 2 
million white-collar workers are now 
represented by bargaining units of one 
kind or another Of that total about 3 
million can be classed as technical or 
professional employees They include 
school teachers and college 
professors, musicians and screen 
actors, employees of state and local 
governments, journalists and postal 

Why are so many white-collar workers 
rushing to join unions 9 Technological 
change otters a partial explanation, 
say labour authorities The Labor 
Department predicts that hv 1980 
there will be a total of 49 3 million 
white-collar employees more than all 
other categories put together There is 
also a growing realization among 
professionals that their employment 
problems are not vastly different from 
those of blue-collar or service 
workers Many in the middle class say 
there is a lag between the pay raises 
won by the blue-collar unions and 
their own salary increases: cutbacks in 
a variety of industries have hit many 
of the middle class; and professional 

The labour Ga/ 75 

or technical workers can find 
themselves with no-one to turn to if 
they are unhappy about job 
assignments or working conditions At 
the same time, traditional opposition to 
trade unionism has been fading in 
many fields, particularly in education 
and the public service 

The National Education Association 
and the American Federation of 
Teachers together represent close to 
two million teachers College 
professors were once considered 
unlikely prospects for unionization Yet 
in 1972. the American Association of 
University Professors voted to "pursue 
collective bargaining as a major 
additional way of realizing the 
Associations goals in higher 
education." Now. it is bargaining on 
behalf of about 11.000 faculty 
members at 27 schools 

About a million professional 
employees-defined by the Labor 
Department as persons "with a high 
degree of formal training or an 
exceptionally high degree of talent and 
skill"-can be found in the ranks of 
the 18 unions that make up the 
Council of AFL-CIO Unions for 
Professional Employees The growing 
unionization of public employees also 
involves many middle-class workers A 
third of the 700 000 members of the 
American Federation of State. County 
and Municipal Employees, for example, 
are white-collar workers Many, from 
accountants to highway engineers to 
social workers, came into the union 
through mergers with state employee 

Secretary of Labor Peter Brennan 
believes that the spread of 
unionization among public employees 
will continue and that there will be 
increasing pressure for federal laws to 
permit collective bargaining by public 
employees in states where it is not 
yet permitted 

Although unionization is widespread in 
the federal public service, bargaining 
is permitted only on non-wage issues. 

such as working conditions The 
largest union of federal public service 
employees is the American Federation 
of Government Employees, with about 
300.000 members, half of whom fall 
into the professional and technical 

For the future, unions are looking 
increasingly to scientists and 
engineers as the greatest area of 
potential growth About one million 
engineers and 600.000 scientists and 
mathematicians, two thirds of them in 
private industry, rank second in size 
among professional groups, behind 
public school teachers. Many are 
realizing that they are no different 
from other employees, that they are 
small parts in a corporate machine 
and have little power to bring their 
salaries up. safeguard their jobs or 
resolve grievances. 

Executive Outplacement 

Firing an executive reguires a certain 
amount of courage. It can be 
distasteful, embarrassing- and 
expensive, if it creates bad publicity 
So more than 200 big corporations in 
the U S. -including a large number of 
banks- are trying "outplacement 
consultants." specialists who. for a fee. 
advise companies on how to handle 
the firing and also counsel the fired 
executive on how to find another job 
These consultants sell the idea that a 
third party makes it easier for a 
company to appraise its management 
and to weed out those who are no 
longer effective With the economy 
providing companies with reason to 
cut back on manpower, the consultant 
is increasingly in demand. 

Some companies use a specialist only 
to tutor a fired executive, but most 
bring him in to help with the actual 
firing The consultant s first |ob is to 
instruct the employer on how to break 
the news to the manager who is 
about to be fired. The consultant 
generally advises the person who is 
to do the firing to be brief and 
uneguivocal, and to do it in a 

conference room or in the other 
person s office so that the firer can 
get up and leave The length of time 
the executive s pay and benefits will 
continue should normally be 
established in advance, and the 
announcement inside the company 
and to the press should coincide with 
the actual firing. The consultant 
usually advises the employer to get 
the executive off the premises too 
Once the latter has been fired, the 
consultant shows up to appease his 
grief and anger, to bolster his 
confidence and get him thinking about 
a new job The consultant then 
underlines the fired man's 
accomplishments and, through 
interviews and tests, tries to identify 
the skills that he thinks a prospective 
employer might be interested in The 
executive is taught to develop 
contacts and probe hidden segments 
of the job market through systematic 
letter writing and telephoning, but not 
to overlook normal channels like 
executive placement services and 
want ads He is also taught 
interviewing technigues and how to 
negotiate for his salary 

Firing consultants claim that nearly all 
the people they counsel find jobs 
within two to four months, partly 
because they reserve the right to turn 
down really tough cases, such as 
those involving alcoholics or 
executives to whom a company 
refuses to give a recommendation. 
Many users reportedly agree that thev 
benefited from the service The clients, 
who pay a fee of 10 to 15 per cent 
of the fired executive s gross annual 
salary, seem satisfied too. 

Vinyl Chloride Levels Set 

The US. Labor Department has 
issued a new standard dealing with 
the exposure of factory employees to 
vinyl chloride The standard, effective 
January 1, 1975. drastically cuts the 
amount of vinyl chloride to which 
workers can be exposed The Labor 
Department decided to issue the new 
rules after the number of deaths 

The Labour Ga/etle-Jan 75 

traceable to vinyl chloride, which 
causes a rare and fatal form of liver 
cancer known as angiosarcoma had 
climbed to more than 20 

The temporary emergency standard for 
vinyl chloride, in effect from April 5 to 
October 5. 1974. provided that 
workers should not be exposed to the 
chemical at levels exceeding 50 parts 
per million of air. The previous 
standard, which had been 500 ppm. 
was set in 1971 The new regulations 
maintained the 50 ppm level until 
December 31, 1974 Now. workers 
may not be exposed to more than 1 
ppm of vinyl chloride averaged over 
eight hours of exposure, and no 
concentration higher than 5 ppm over 
any 15-mmute period. 

After January 1, 1976, workers will be 
required to wear respirators if they are 
exposed to air containing more than 1 
ppm of vinyl chloride over eight hours 
and 5 ppm over 15 minutes In 1975. 
if vinyl chloride levels are below 25 
ppm. the use of respirators will be left 
up to each employee after he has 
been warned of the danger. 

The new standard applies to the 
manufacture, reaction, packaging, 
repackaging, storage, handling or use 
of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride 
but does not apply to the handling or 
use of fabricated products made of 
polyvinyl chloride ." 

The new standard calls also for 
regular monitoring of plant air. regular 
medical examinations for workers, and 
establishment of regulated areas ' 
where vinyl chloride levels are high. It 
prohibits direct worker contact with 
liquefied vinyl chloride and requires 
the posting of signs warning that the 
chemical is a cancer-suspect agent.' 

Dr Irving Selikoff (Mount Sinai School 
of Medicine), occupational health 
consultant to the AFL-CIO Industrial 
Union Department, said that the 1 
ppm limit on exposure to vinyl 
chloride is in essence a recognition 
of the contention of labour and health 

authorities that there should be no 
exposure to vinyl chloride.' A 
spokesman for a plastics company, 
however, said that the new regulations 
put the industry on a collision course 
with economic disaster' and that they 
could throw two million jobs down 
the drain." 

Employee Shareholding Plan 

Texasgulf Inc., a mining and chemical 
concern, has announced a wide- 
ranging employee stock-sharing plan 
that will reportedly make every 
employee a shareholder in the 

Under the program, the multinational 
firm's 4,000 full-time employees- 
including 2.000 Canadians-will receive 
from one to 50 shares of Texasgulf 
stock this year, depending on their 
years of service The Canadians 
include about 1.700 workers at the 
company s Kidd Creek mining 
operation near Timmms. Ontario, and 
more than 300 employees working in 
offices and mining properties in 
Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver. 

The initial disbursement of stock 
begun in late November, included 
more than 40,000 shares. Texasgulf 
estimates that employees will receive 
an additional 50000 shares during the 
next 5 years They will receive stock 
on the following basis less than 5 
years of service, one share: 5 to 10 
years, five shares. 10 to 15 years. 15 
shares; 15 to 20 years. 30 shares; 20 
or more years, 50 shares. 

Dr. Charles F. Fogarty, chairman of 
the board, believes that "owning a 
part of the company will give each 
employee a greater awareness of why 
profits are so important." 

WFTU Leader Dies 

Louis Saillant. for 24 years head of 
the Communist-dominated World 
Federation of Trade Unions, died on 
October 28 in Paris at the age of 73. 
Saillant, a carpenter by profession. 

rose through the ranks of the French 
General Labour Federation (C.G.T i to 
national secretary of its carpenters 
section by the time he was 27 In 
1940. when the Vichy Government 
declared all trade unions illegal, he 
went underground, becoming a 
prominent leader of the French 
Resistance and heading its top council 
in 1944 

After serving as a Communist member 
of the Constituent Assembly that 
worked out the Constitution of the 
Fourth Republic. Saillant participated in 
the 1945 London meeting of the 
World Trade Union Congress that 
founded the WFTU. which elected him 
secretary-general. The union grouping 
represented more than 66 million 
workers from 56 countries and was at 
the time the only international labour 
organization Following the secession 
of non-Communist member unions 
from the WFTU (they were to form 
the International Confederation of Free 
Trade Unions), he moved his 
headquarters to Prague. 
Czechoslovakia in 1948. He received 
a Lenin Prize from the USSR in 
1959. returned to France and became 
an honorary president of the WFTU in 

Layoff Compensation 

A recent agreement between France s 
major trade unions and the country s 
employers' association guarantees full 
pay for a year to French workers who 
lose their jobs because of economic 
difficulties in their industry The new 
layoff compensation scheme, reached 
after three months of negotiations 
between the unions and employers, 
represents fulfilment of an election 
promise made by President Valery 
Giscard d Estaing Had the unions and 
employers not been able to reach 
agreement by the end of this year, he 
was prepared to step in with 

The accord, believed to be the first of 
its kind in any western industrial 
nation, will be administered by an 

The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 

organization known as the National 
Union tor Unemployment It is 
expected that the Government will 
make an initial contribution ot about 
one billion trancs (roughly $220 
million) to the fund and thereafter 
match company and worker 
contributions on a franc-for-franc 
basis Companies and workers will 
contribute to the fund on a 4-to-i 

To qualify a worker must be less 
than 60 years old- the age when early 
retirement legislation comes into 
effect- and he must have held a non- 
seasonal job for 12 months prior to 
the layoff In addition, each enployee's 
efforts to find new employment will be 
reviewed at three-month intervals, and 
he will be disqualified should he 
refuse at any time during the 12- 
month period following the layoff to 
accept suitable employment offered to 
him or decline to take part in any kind 
of retraining program. 

Although the landmark agreement has 
been applauded by all sectors of 
French society some businessmen are 
worried that it might lead to increased 
union militancy They fear that 
demands for higher wages need no 
longer be restrained by fear of layoffs. 

German Unionism 

According to surveys conducted by 
the Institute for Applied Science in 
West Germany, 25 per cent of the 
country's population considers unions 
"highly necessary' nowadays. 45 per 
cent considers them necessary'' and 
23 per cent "necessary at times 
Only 8 per cent of West Germany s 
population regards unions as 
unnecessary " 

Of more than 22 million gainfully 
employed persons in the Federal 
Republic of Germany, more than 
seven million belong to the DGB 
(German Trade Unions Federation), 
the umbrella organization for 16 
unions The Christian Trade Unions' 
Federation has close to 200.000 

members, and the German Salaried 
Employees' Union. 480.000. 

West German workers' organizations 
see themselves as a political force 
with the right to share, on a long-term 
basis, in the development of the state, 
society and the economy Although 
they are not directly mentioned as a 
political factor in the Constitution of 
the Federal Republic, they have a say 
in the political decision-making 
process through their links with the 
political parties It is interesting to 
note that more than half the members 
of the German Bundestag are also 
members of the DGB 

Rural Workers Need Help 

Measures to raise income and 
employment levels for agricultural 
workers were urged by the 
International Labour Organization's 
Advisory Committee on Rural 
Development at its October meeting in 

The committee drew attention to the 
seriousness of poverty among the 
world s agricultural workers, most of 
whom are engaged in subsistence 
farming, and it underlined the 
importance of the rural economy for 

economic and social progress in 
developing countries 

The ILO experts said that public 
expenditure and investment should be 
geared more closely to the needs of 
the agricultural sector A system of 
credit and long-term loans at low 
interest should be made available to 
all cultivators who should also be 
able to buy agricultural supplies at 
reasonable prices Better distribution 
of land and accessibility of water 
supplies were other immediate needs 
pinpointed by the Committee 

A number of specific measures were 
proposed for each of the main four 
categories of rural workers: 

—immediate action to create 

productive employment for the 

landless and the unemployed; 

-minimum- wage fixing, equal pay for 

equal work and the elimination of the 

subcontracting system for wage 


—security and stability of tenure and 

fair sharing of the results of 

production for tenants and 


—measures for the benefit of small 

farmers, among them improvement of 

managerial abilities, adequate market 


" "*" ••• 

mftinnm t 

...*., .. .1-1.1 ■ 

i i ■ 

ii M hi i 
< .I im in m 

I! 11)11 II 

The new headquarters building of the International Labour Oflice in 
Geneva was inaugurated last November. The 11 -storey headquarters, 
set on a hillside overlooking the city and its lake, will serve as the ILO s 
base for its operations, meetings, research and publications. 

The Uit'Pu' Gazette Jan 75 

information, and storage and 
processing facilities 

The ILO could help to bring about 
these improvements, the committee 
said, by stepping up its activities in 
the fields of rural employment 
promotion and training, by encouraging 
rural workers' organizations, by 
promoting accurate income and wage 
statistics, and by the ratification of 
international labour standards 

Australians Pro-Union 

Australians are overwhelmingly of the 
opinion that there have been too 
many strikes in their country Most 
Australians, however, think that trade 
unions have been a good thing for 
Australia and that strikes should be 
legal, at least in the private sector 
These are the principal findings of a 
recent nation-wide Gallup poll on 
attitudes toward trade unions and 

When 2.270 people aged 14 or more 
were asked to look back over the 
history of trade unions in Australia. 62 
per cent said the unions had been a 
good thing for the country. 28 per 
cent said unions had been a bad 
thing, and 10 per cent were 
undecided Surprisingly, the vast 
majority of owners and managers of 
big business and their wives (70 per 
cent) and professional people agreed 
with the statement trade unions have 
been a good thing for Australia ." 
Seventy-three per cent of the people 
interviewed said membership in trade 
unions should be voluntary. 21 per 
cent said membership should be 
compulsory, and 6 per cent were 

Analysis by union membership showed 
that the vote for voluntary 
membership came from 67 per cent of 
union members and their wives, and 
from 76 per cent of other people 
Analysis by age showed that unionism 
is favoured by 82 per cent of those 
aged 20 to 29. compared with 75 per 
cent of those 30 to 49. 66 per cent of 

those 50 to 69 and 57 per cent of 
those 70 or more. 

A majority (58 per cent) wore of the 
opinion that strikes should be legal in 
private industry but only 48 per cent 
said strikes should be legal for 
workers in public utilities and for 
professional public service employees 

Fewer than 1 per cent of the people 
interviewed said there should be more 
strikes; 8 per cent said there were the 
right number of strikes and an 
overwhelming majority of 91 per cent 
said there were too many strikes. 

Worker Participation 

Australia has established its first 
organization to promote worker 
participation in management The 
services of the new body, a branch of 
South Australia s Department of 
Labour and Industry, are available on 
a consultative basis to both private 
and public sectors. 

In its first five months of operation, 
the Unit for the Quality of Work Life 
(locally known as the Worker 
Participation Unit) gave advice to 27 
of Australia's biggest companies. 13 
departments of the Federal 
Government, various State 
Governments, three major employer 
associations, an assortment of 
managerial and educational bodies, 
and most of the country s leading 
media interests. 

Widespread interest in the new 
organization indicates a recognition by 
both employers and workers of the 
point made by South Australia's 
Premier, Don Dunstan, that any 
person will realize his or her full 
potential at their place of work and 
achieve job satisfaction only if they 
have an interest in and become 
involved with their work 

The unit hopes within two years to 
involve 45 per cent of South 
Australian companies employing more 
than 50 persons either wholly or 
partly in industrial democracy Such 

companies, together with public 
utilities, comprise 76 per cent of the 
workforce The organization seeks 
also to foster co-operation in this field 
between all the State Governments of 
Australia and to develop a dialogue 
with other countries on all facets of 
industrial democracy 

To some people the term industrial 
democracy means profit sharing, to 
others, worker representation at 
management and board level, but to 
the South Australian Department of 
Labour and Industry worker 
participation simply means the 
redesign and humamzation of jobs to 
improve the quality of work life 

The Department s basic approach is to 
provide a free and confidential 
advisory service to management, trade 
unions and employees It provides 
guidelines that will enable employers 
to develop forms of participation that 
are consonant with their organization s 
history and capabilities 

The worker participation unit arranges 
job redesign workshops lasting three 
days, where participants (usually 
numbering 50) concentrate on actual 
and specific problems This interaction 
allows employers to benefit from the 
experiences of others in similar work 
situations It also opens up a three- 
way dialogue between management, 
employees and unions In addition to 
following up with workshop 
participants the designs formulated 
during these workshops, the unit 
works on detailed projects for 
individual employers 

ICFTU Anniversary 

Ceremonies marking the 25th 
anniversary of the International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions 
took place in Brussels on November 
21. the first day of the 62nd session 
of the Executive Board ICFTU 
President. Donald MacDonald and 
other labour leaders addressed 
delegates from the Federations 140 
affiliated organizations, representing 50 
million members in 87 countries 

The Labour Gazelle- Jan 75 

UN Seminar 



With the first hint of fall chill in the air. delegates from 29 
countries met in Ottawa to discuss national machinery that 
would allow women to become more fully integrated into a 
male-dominated world. The seminar, sponsored by the UN 
as a prelude to International Women's Year, was opened 
by Helvi Sipila assistant secretary-general of the UN 

Women make up more than half the worlds population, 
she noted-not to mention half its human resources To 
ignore their potential for national development, as well as 
their personal aspirations for self-fulfilment, will ultimately 
impede economic and social development But improved 
status would only evolve from improved education, literacy 
and economic development, said Mrs Sipila Much higher 
percentages of women than men are illiterate, unemployed 
and underemployed, overburdened with the multiple roles 
of wife, mother and employee, and their contribution is not 
taken into account in the gross national product. Of 
course, there are fewer women graduating from universities, 
and conseguently. fewer women in the upper end of the 
occupational spectrum." 

What's Been Done 

About 35 countries have women s bureaus working within 
the government structure: seven, including Canada have 

national commissions on the status of women, and two 
have councils of equality. Several other countries are in 
the process of setting up machinery, and other are in the 
experimental stage. The President of France has just 
recently appointed a special Minister responsible for the 
Status of Women, and Australia has a special adviser on 
women s affairs. Other governments have been appointing 
women to such high-ranking positions as ministers of state, 
ambassadors, commissioners and judges. 

Despite such obvious forward steps. Mrs Sepila could not 
help sounding a note of gloom Our experience has 
shown that although many governments accept in principle 
the equality between the sexes and have enacted 
progressive legislation, the de facto situation remains 
bleak ' 

She suggested that the hiatus between the actual situation 
and the de jure situation could only be removed by the 
joint planning of both sexes, and by improving the status 
of women in development programs at the planning stage 

The Need for More Study 

"There is a basic need to establish national, state or 
federal commissions with a mandate to evaluate and 
recommend measures and priorities to ensure equality 
between men and women," Mrs. Sepila said. 


The Labour Gazelle- Jan 

As early as 1963. various UN bodies were repeatedly 
recommending the establishment of governmental 
machinery that would allow lull integration of women into 
the development process and provide egual opportunities 
for them to contribute to planning and decision-making. 

"The UN really can't produce much more. It can't change 
legislation, employment opportunities, educational 
opportunities or health services. This has to be done at 
the national level. 

The theme for International Women's Year is Equality. 
Development. Peace ' and the program of activities will be 
launched at an international conference held in Bogota. 
Colombia from June 23 to July 4 

"International Women's Year will undoubtedly test and 
stretch to their limits of performance, all the parts of 
machinery we have in Canada,'' said Freda Paltiel. a 
special government adviser on the status of women. 

Canada Taking Steps 

Martha Hynna Co-ordmator. Status of Women and acting 
head of the Canadian delegation, said that the question of 
women's position in society is emerging as a major issue 
for all governments at the provincial, national and 
international levels We in Canada feel that ongoing 
bodies such as law reform commissions and anti- 
discrimination agencies are of prime importance. " she said. 
The federal and provincial governments have established 
law reform commissions that are now in the process of 
making recommendations to remove anachronisms and 
anomalies from the law A number of these commissions 
are studying the questions of family law and married 
person s property law. subjects that are crucial to women s 
position in the family, and society as a whole. " 

Most provincial governments now have human rights 
commissions, and the federal Government has announced 
its intention to establish in the near future a commission 
for the protection of egalitarian rights. 

"Canada's objective is the full integration of women in all 
aspects of society, and an end to discrimination, Ms. 
Hynna said When this is achieved, the national machinery 
we re talking about will have become obsolete 

Differing Views on What's Needed 

It was made clear at the outset that equality for the 
world s women with all the world's men had different 
connotations for different UN delegates If to Canadian 
women it meant updating certain connubial community 
property laws and gaining equality of opportunity to 
compete in male-dominated fields, in some countries it 

meant the attempt to end prostitution forced by 
circumstance on young women who could not find gainful 
employment; to update craft skills or to terminate illiteracy. 

Also evident among the delegates was the feeling that in 
certain countries the status of women is more highly 
evolved than it is in the industrialized nations of the West 


In the USSR, women comprise 51 per cent of the country s 
total workpower. They make up about 60 per cent of all 
workers with specialized secondary or higher education. 31 
per cent of engineers. 40 per cent of agricultural 
specialists. 71 per cent of teachers and 72 per cent of 

"Half a million women are managers of industrial 
enterprises, state farms and collective farms, administrative 
institutions, and construction supervisors." said Tatiana 
Nikolaeva Principal Secretary. Commission on Social 
Problems. USSR "Women occupy leading positions in the 
most varied areas of the national economy Their high 
level of education and culture enables them to master any 
profession, to work on complex machines and to perform 
high class productive operations." 

USSR trade unions play an important role in promoting the 
welfare of women and ensuring equal opportunity in 
employment A Special Committee on Women Workers set 
up as an advisory body to the All-Union Central Council 
has resulted in improved working conditions recreation, 
social security, education and state protection of 
motherhood and childhood In the USSR paid maternity 
leave is four months regardless of the length of service. 
New legislation on marriage and the family, adopted in 
1968. stresses equality of women and men in family and 
property relations, and equality of rights and duties of 
parents in respect to bringing up children 

"The historical experience of the Soviet State has 
confirmed that socialism provides such economic and 
social conditions in which the energy and initiative, 
numerous gifts and talents of the women have been fully 
discovered. Ms. Nikolaeva said 


In Bulgaria another socialist country, there is absolute 
equality in male and female wages. Women make up 44 
per cent of the labour force, and 82 per cent of working 
age women are employed or involved with advanced 

"One third of our engineers, half of our doctors. 40 per 
cent of our architects and technologists. 80 per cent of our 

The Labour Gazette- Jan 7S 


teachers and 30 per cent of our economists are women, 
said Svetla Dafkalova. Minister of Justice but added We 
need a political decree representing a basic directive of a 
legal, socio-economic nature to guarantee favourable 
conditions for harmonious promotion of women in future 
society-to improve women s role in the structure of 
socialist society. 


The emancipation of women m Yugoslavia began with the 
social revolution and has continued to be part of the social 
system Yugoslavia has a structure called the Conference 
for the Social Activity of Women It is a social 
organization that gives utterance to political consciousness 
and to the need for social action to improve the position of 
women.' said Jasna Gardun, a member of the 
Conferences board of directors The Conference works on 
long-term programs of action studies the essential 
problems related to the social position of women, and 
initiates action in various social structures that can bring 
about solutions to these problems ." 

The terms of reference are wide The Conference deals 
with most aspects of social and economic life, ranging from 
employment of women, their education, protection of 
mothers and their inclusion into social life, to guarding the 
interests of the modern family, especially if both parents 
are employed It is thus concerned with the welfare of 
children, housing problems, distribution of canteen meals 
and so on "The Conference is actively involved in 
planning for the entire socio-economic development of the 
country.' Ms Gardun said As a direct result of Ihe 
Conference the Federal Assembly passed a law on family 
planning and another law on the social protection of 
children there have been other legislative measures for the 
protection of mothers." 

It is also concerned with increasing employment 
opportunities for women and the promotion of advanced 
studies for female students. 


Although Egypt's women have only been eligible to vote 


The Labouf I ! <:■ tie Ian 75 

since 1956 and employment is somewhat limited they are 
protected against job discrimination by labour legislation 
enacted in 1959 Equal pay for equal work is granted to 
both sexes in the Civil Service, and the retirement age of 
60 is the same for both 

Now that Egyptian woman has the right to work, to 
produce and occupy her place side by side with men. the 
Ministry of Social Affairs has responded accordingly." said 
Hoda Barakat of the Ministry of Social Affairs It has 
drawn up integrated programs to enable the family to play 
its role effectively with respect to rearing its children. 
These programs will also provide every possible social and 
medical care during the mother's absence at work " 

The Sudan 

It has been a long hard uphill struggle however, for 
women in the Middle East During the colonial period, 
education was not organized to eradicate illiteracy for 
either men or women The current illiteracy figures 
illustrate how little was accomplished durinq that period 
said Dr Fatma Abdel Mahmoud. Deputy Minister of Health 
and Social Welfare. Khartoum. Sudan About 75 per cent 
of the men and 92 per cent of the women are illiterate.' 

In the Sudan, she said, discrimination against women is 
baseo on a number of economic, social and cultural 
factors. It is no secret that males receive preferential 
treatment in Sudanese communities whereas women are 
confined to domestic affairs and child rearing Within the 
family itself, when boys are born, the family celebrates 
because the birth brings many social benefits Girls are 
considered to be associated with shame, weakness and 
with very limited participation, but.'' she added, "this general 
or traditional concept is now diminishing." 

A commission on the status of women was established 
through the Sudanese Ministry of Health and Social 
Welfare in April 1974 The decision was made following 
meetings between the Ministry the UN and the Economic 
Commission for Africa Dr Mahmoud heads the 
commission, which is now in the process of conducting a 
study on working women according to occupation, sector 
and salary scales Seminars concerning the status of 
women are planned for various African countries. 


Lack of education and lack of communication are two great 
barriers to equality of the sexes in African countries 
Women in Mali have had the right to vote since 1963. and 
they have been guaranteed equal pay and equal working 
conditions "But illiteracy is a big problem." said Malian 
delegate Nene Satourou Tall. Eighty five per cent of the 
women -really 100 per cent if you consider rural areas- 
are illiterate. 

Mali was the first French-speaking African country to admit 
women into government after gaining independence A 
major problem is to convince women they have the right 
to take part in the country s development 


In Ghana females make up 39 per cent of school 
enrolment The government of Ghana has no official 
commission concerned with the status of women, but there 
are ad hoc volunteer organizations striving for 

For many African women, true liberation will come only 
with a marked change in attitude. Through education they 
will gain the right to take part in the country s 
development The problem is to convince them they have 
the right to participate. 


In Kenya there is a noticeable gap between the number of 
male and female students Women still lag behind in 
education." said Justus Siboe. Principal Community 
Development Officer. Nairobi, and one of only two male 
delegates at the conference. But the independent Kenya 
has done much more in the field of female education than 
was ever done under colony rule." 

When Kenya became independent in 1963. only 34 2 per 
cent of girls were in primary schools: the number has now 
risen to 45 per cent The number of female university 
students has steadily increased in the last five years. 

Adult education classes are flourishing also Nearly 70 per 
cent of the 31.400 adult students are women Farmers 
Training Centres have a majority of female students, as 
have health courses, and women are on a par with men in 
co-operative informal training courses. 

"Employment in Kenya has been based strictly on merit 
Mr. Siboe said, "but unfortunately in the past women have 
not had the same educational opportunities as men As 
more and more women attend higher institutions, openings 
will correspondingly increase." 

About two years ago. co-operatives called Mabati Groups 
became involved in renovating living quarters Since that 
time 8.000 houses have been renovated This means that 
some 8.000 families are living in comparatively better 
houses as a result of these women's group activities." 
Some 1.400 groups numbering 63.000 are involved in 
home economics and welfare programs to assist the aged 
and disabled The Kenya University Women's Committee 
has been collecting funds for scholarships to enable girls 
from poor homes to continue with higher education It has 

rii' l ibour Ga/flte- Jan 7b 


been clear to us through experimentation that well- 
organized women's groups with well-developed leadership 
can hasten development, he said That, in fact, 
acceptance of innovations is faster if they are introduced 
through these groups " 


In Mexico more than 100 000 women have been trained to 
work in social improvement programs and community 
development schemes Under the initiative and control of 
the National Institute for the Protection of Childhood, 
women are encouraged to help solve the problems 
common to all wives and mothers 

Women have begun to realize the importance of their role 
in society." said Yolanda Ballesteros. who has a doctorate 
in chemistry and pharmacobiology They know now that 
their role in procreation is to achieve quality rather than 
quantity of descendants. 

The urgent need to curb population growth has led to the 
reform of the General Population Law The reduction and 
stabilization of the population growth is defined as an 
educational problem that allows foi i h in ■ i< ntal 

structures It promotes also a responsible attitude towards 
the reproductive function of woman, coupled with more 
opportunities for education and employment, so that her 
judicial equality may become a reality 

"Women count this as an institutional aid to fight 
machismo and discrimination." she said. The term 
machismo conveys the exaltation of a false virility and 
male preponderance that simultaneously implies and 
overvalues one of the personality characteristics that for a 
long time has defined Mexican women submission, or the 
self-denial of her personality to man 

But female chauvinism, she said, is just as harmful New 
ideas must start at home. A mother must stop 
discriminating against her sons and daughters by treating 
them differently. She must intervene at the school level 
and forbid use of texts which show women always only in 
the role of wife and mother 


Many underdeveloped societies that are predominantly 
male-dominated view women s integration as a threat to 
their masculinity. Sociologist Mario Zolezzi of Peru, the only 


Dr. Yolanda Senties de Ballesteros. Freda Palteil 

Dr. Fatma Abdel Mahmoud 

The Labour Gazette Jan 75 

other male delegate at the conference, said that any 
formulation of policy and programs must start with national 
development policies; otherwise efforts for full integration 
will be wasted. 

"Private organizations are often ridiculously competitive." he 
said. Individual organizations should belong to a national 
body that would co-ordinate programs so that integral 
programs can be carried out If the problem is seen from 
the view of global development, we can take a series of 
measures that have so far not been tackled. " 

One of the major obstacles to women s advancement is 
their lack of education Many of the eight million women 
in my country can neither read nor write.' Mr. Zolezzi said 
"To have the right to vote, you first have to be literate ." 


do not consider it beneath them to be involved with 
handicrafts, nor do women consider it unfemmine to 
concern themselves with agriculture. 

Spam has set up a National Committee on Women s 
Employment to advise the Minister of Labour on ways to 
fully integrate women into the economic life of the country 


"In the Netherlands most people still think in terms of 
traditional sex-stereotyped roles for men and women, boys 
and qirls. said N C de Ruiter. Chairwoman National 
Committee. International Women s Year Although there is 
equality of educational opportunities at nearly all levels, the 
educational patterns of parents and teachers and the 
advice of vocational counsellors orient most girls towards 
marriage only 

Spain s women doctors, lawyers and sociologists are 
involved in the planning that affects all aspects of life. "We 
have 52 national organizations in which women participate 
because the government is aware that they can help solve 
these problems." said Carmen Salinas. Women s Section 
National Technical Cabinet's Delegation Conversely men 

There are few Dutch women in high-ranking or high-paying 
positions, and very few women representatives in 
government or on local, regional and national political 
bodies But the Ministry of Social Affairs now has a special 
committee that advises officials exclusively on the 
pmplovmi'nt ol women and the Dutrh Government is 

Claire Gebeyli. Lebanon; Sylva Gelber, Canada 

The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 


determined to formulate a coherent social policy to 
promote equality between men and women and bring 
about the full integration of women in all parts of society 


Another delegate, May Britt Carlsson, Ombudsman for the 
Permanent Mission of Sweden to the UN told delegates 
that under-representation of women in policy-making bodies 
and in other organizations was another sign of inequality, 
and of an attitude that discriminates against women and 
hampers them in their efforts These values and attitudes 
reflect the division of labour between men and women that 
now characterizes society, locking both men and women in 
separate life roles and impeding a free development of 

Demands for equality involve not only changes in the life 
conditions of women, she urged, but also in those of men. 
"For women, these changes would mean increased 
opportunities for going out to work, and for men. the 
possibility of taking greater responsibility for the care of the 

If increasing numbers of women are to work outside the 
home, she added, the day care and services in residential 
areas will have to be expanded, and the work in the home 
fairly divided between members of the family. 


Jamaica once a crown colony, gained its independence 10 
years ago. and has had to go through the usual growing 
pains of educating its people 

"Women are respected not only in their role of wives and 
mothers but women of ability are appointed to positions of 
authority," said Kathleen Edwards. Executive Secretary of 
the islands YWCA When you consider that 41 per cent 
of the population is illiterate, women have no problem 
filling positions at an advanced level if they are qualified to 
do so There is a class consciousness in Jamaica, but not 
necessarily a competitive male-female consciousness." 

Mrs. Edwards admitted, however, that in some circles there 
was a certain resentment toward higher education for 
women as it was believed that professions would sutler if 
a woman was too devoted to home and family 

'This is. of course, a fallacy." she said, as it has been 
proven that professional women can competently cope with 
both home and profession We re at a melting point in our 
development where women are beginning to realize their 
true value to their society and are making a conscious 
effort to reshape their image It's now up to the women of 
Jamaica to grasp the opportunities being offered them, to 

Mary Britt Carlsson 



Jasna Gerdun 



rhe i al ' i i i -•'•>■ 1 in ' 

accept responsibility and not reject promotion or executive 
positions on the grounds ot family ties. ' 

The Philippines 

The Filipino delegate. Leticia Shahani Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, found the militant views expressed in the mass 
media by North American women to be disconcerting. As 
a Filipino. I find it hard to understand what true eguality 
between the sexes really means. Educated Filipino women 
are active in every aspect of life Besides the more 
traditional roles such as teaching and nursing, women take 
their place with men in heading commissions, in law, 
finance, banking, trade and commerce." 

smooth co-ordination among them 

"Women's affairs are related to many ministries, said 
Mayumi Monyama. Director General. Women s and Minors 
Bureau. Ministry of Labour Each ministry has a long 
history of stable, well-established bureaucratic organizations 
with their own jurisdiction They are reorganized quite often 
to meet the new demands of the people. 

New ideas and programs are coming out constantly 
Government officials say that co-operation and co- 
ordination is necessary, and they do co-operate and co- 
ordinate But still it is not easy to always get really good 
co-ordination among these ministries. 

But she readily admitted that there is high unemployment 
in the Phillipmes and that women on the lower echelons 
do not complain about discrimination or lack of benefits 
because they fear losing their jobs. 

"We are not as obsessed as our Western sisters with the 
subject of equality." she said We don t want to see 
polarization of the sexes Women know they are needed 
also as wives and mothers, as men are needed as 
husbands and fathers There exists between the two sexes 
not a feeling of competitiveness, but of mutual respect." 

More and more women are reaching the university and 
graduate level We are seeking ways to bring our young 
men up to the level of the women, she said. 

The Phillipmes has had a Women's Bureau since 1960. 
and they are now in the process of establishing a 
commission on the role of Filipino women "We are doing 
research to find the status of Filipino women before we 
came in contact with the West ." 


In the early 1900s Japan went through a period of social 
consciousness coupled with an increase in educational 
opportunities for women Persistent efforts were made to 
allow women to participate in politics but it was not until 
the end of World War II that the position of the Japanese 
woman improved dramatically 

In November 1948 Japan made both sexes equal under 
the law. and placed women legally on the same level with 
men in all aspects of political, social and family life 
Women's suffrage was granted, co-education introduced, 
equal wages prescribed and egual connubial rights 
guaranteed Several government bodies were set up to 
work on improving the actual status of women 

Although Japan has well-organized, long-established and 
fairly efficient ministries, there is the universal problem of 

"Being a director-general of the Ministry of Labour and at 
the same time wishing to have a comprehensive program 
for improving the status of women as a whole. I am 
always asking myself a question: What is co-ordination and 
how can it be done really well 9 


This question common to bureaucracies the world over, 
was answered in part by Malaysia's Catherine Chung Tzu- 
Hui. Labour Officer Malaysia is a multiracial country 
where customs and conventions usually end up as laws of 
the land." she said It would be difficult to set up a single 
national body to minutely examine all the problems 
affecting women, so the Government encourages smaller 
units or organizations to cater to respective needs of the 
different aspects of Malaysian society. 

She explained that the present position of women in 
Malaysian working society is not because of legislative 
hindrances but because of deep-rooted customs and fears 
In the eyes of the law. women are on equal footing with 
men This unique Malaysian predicament has placed 
women at different stages and levels of integration and 

In Malaysia they found that if women involved in the same 
compartments of society work together in smaller units it 
overcomes the problem of communication, and provides 
them with a sense of identity For example, it would be 
easier for the women employed on Malaysian aqncultural 
plantations to form a unit of their own It would be difficult 
to get this particular group to form and participate with an 
urban women s organization." 

These smaller units then form part of a large organization 
on a national scale. The Women s Unit in the Ministry of 
Labour is primarily involved with the setting up of these 
smaller organizations. 

"The Malaysian Government is convinced that the setting 

The I aboui Ga?ette-Jan 75 


up of private organizations is the primary way to accelerate 
the integration of Malaysian women in development and to 
eliminate discrimination on grounds of sex.'' Ms. Chung 
Tzu-Hu said. The Government is thus sparing no efforts 
in accomplishing this goal." 

Asian Development Efforts 

Many Asian countries have undergone rapid social 
changes, particularly those that emerged as independent 
nations after World War II Countries like India. Indonesia 
Afghanistan. Iran and Nepal have created national 
commissions on the status of women The principle of 
non-discrimination between the citizens, covering in its 
scope egual rights for men and women, is contained in 
most constitutions and fundamental laws on education and 

With the ultimate goal being to improve the living 
conditions of the people, many Asian countries have 
launched development plans. Since modernization will bring 
about changes in the social economic, cultural and political 
fields, it would seem obvious that in development efforts 
women, who represent half of the total population, could 
not be ignored 

The way women can be involved in the development 
efforts depends on many factors, said Suwarni Sal|o. 
Chairman of the National Commission on the Status of 
Women. Indonesia, in a paper presented to the seminar. 

Much will lie with the women themselves, the mode in 
which they respond to the challenge, their dynamism, 
genius and ability to cope with the rapidly changing 
conditions Of the utmost importance, however, is also the 
climate of the social, cultural and political environment- 
whether society or government policy enhance the 
development of societal institutions such as women's 
organizations, labour unions or other social forces." 

Ms Saljo pointed out that although development plans 
mostly emphasize economic development, it has been 
increasingly recognized that unless a simultaneous 
eguitable social change takes place, economic growth may 
create imbalances that will disturb social stability. Because 
of their guahties. women are sensitive to social problems, 
problems of education, health nutrition, family planning, the 
character development of the young generation, or the 
family welfare in general, as well as being involved with 
the economic sectors of the country. 

The biggest stumbling block to development and 
emancipation, however, is communication, said Roesiah 
Sardiono, secretary-general of Indonesia's social affairs 
ministry Indonesia has a population of 126 million, the fifth 
largest population in the world. 

The Government has launched a massive family planning 
campaign to motivate people to have fewer children." she 
said. Families traditionally have at least six children, but 
now the Government is cutting off family allowance 
benefits after the fourth child 

Independence in 1945 marked the major turning point for 
Indonesian women. Under the colonial system women 
were classed as insane and had no political rights or the 
right to sit on village councils This was eradicated at 
independent e.' 

Nene Satourou Tali, Catherine Chung Tzu-Hui 

More Information Essential 

Delegates stressed the need to collect scientific, statistical 
data on the worlds women. 

Sylva Gelber, Director of the Women's Bureau. Canada 
Department of Labour, said that analysis of data could play 
a major role in the development of national machinery for 
equality, especially in the area of legislation Delegates 
agreed that this data to be truly effective, would have to 
have an international base for accurate communication. 

"We need an international language to know we're all 
saying the same thing in data," said Marcelle Devaud. 
president du comite du travail feminin, France Limited 
surveys or small samplings can be carried out. but it 
wouldn't have enough scientific value On-the-spot surveys, 
however, can lead to more detailed and professional 
surveys that could be carried out by a national body." 

Legislation Coupled With Education 

Legislation was indispensable to equality. Freda Paltiel said, 
but legislation alone was insufficient unless accompanied 

The Labour Ga<*t;ti> Uv\ '^ 

by efforts to accelerate the worldwide integration of 

"Wo must maintain an overall perspective of integration as 
a prime policy issue." she urged We need a clearing 
house of information and we need to monitor legislation 
and its administration " 

All delegates agreed that legislation alone would not bring 
about eguality. Poverty ignorance and illiteracy could only 
(• /ercome bv intensive educational programs to instil 

But the rosy picture ends here.'' said Sant Sarojini 
Varadappan. Chairperson. Central Social Welfare Board. 
New Delhi Though the Indian woman has acguired 
equality legally and constitutionally, her actual position is 
far trom satisfactory. 

The forces of reaction continue to remain strong in Indian 
society The caste traditional authoritarian family and male- 
oriented religious practices are still deep-rooted 

In the struggle for cr onomir independence women I 

Mario Zolezzi Chocano, N.C. de Ruiter 

Justus Siboe, Dr. Katie Cooke 

confidence in women, making them aware of their own rich 
potential Many believed that International Women's Year is 
a good vehicle to spark national educational programs 
slanted to women's needs. 

Political Rights 

But if Square One " on the drawing-board represents 
education, what of those women in developing countries 
who are not only educated but have managed to be 
admitted to the higher halls of power 9 

The women of India have full political rights including the 
right to be elected representatives in the Houses of 
Parliament and legislative assemblies Currently the 
Parliament of India has 33 women MPs of whom three are 
Ministers There are 154 women elected to the State 
Legislature, and of course the Prime Minister of India. 
Indira Gandhi, is a woman. 

For the last 100 years. Indian women have been involved 
m teaching and medicine Now they are also governors, 
ambassadors, ministers legislators, administrators, 
engineers, architects town planners, nuclear physicists, 
journalists and pilots 

limited opportunities It is an economic structure wherein 
disparities of income, occupational status and property 
status among different strata are widening in such a 
manner that economic power is concentrated among a few 
sections of the community.'' Varadappan said It is an 
economic structure wherein a huge backlog of educated 
unemployed throng the doors of employment agencies, 
where unemployment and underemployment and low paid 
employment (among women) is a natural corollary 

The insecurity and lack of jobs have more than one 
significance These perpetuate her economic dependence 
with resultant social and economic subordination It also 
makes her a cheap tool in the hands of the employer to 
depress the general wage structure of the working class as 
a whole " 

Education Not Enough 

Earlier in the conference Canada's Freda Paltiel had 
cautioned delegates against believing that education alone 
would open the doors to full equality Witness the North 
American experience of a period of high educational 
attainment for women without concomitant extended 
responsibilities in society when the predominant cultural 

n* i .iboui Gazette-Jar- '5 


Part of the Canadian Delegation, from L. to R.: Thelma Nicholson, Dr. Katie Cooke, Laurette Robillard. 
Martha Hynna and Laura Sabia 

values placed women squarely in the home and in 
supportive roles " 

Summing up the Indian woman of today could very well be 
a summation of all women striving to take their place as 
equal members of society 

"She is neither a picture of docile submission to the old 
values nor bold enough to stand and face the challenges 
of the fast-changing world, said Ms Varadappan Mentally 
she is neither objective enough to play her two roles as 
wife and mother on one hand and an economically 
productive member of society on the other, nor still 
slumbering enough to swallow unquestioned authority, 
which her mother and grandmother accepted without 
raising a voice 

She is neither fully contained in the security of her family 
that insulated her from outside contacts nor independent 
of the family to which she is deeply attached. 

"A young woman of today is the product ot a traditionally 
well-knit family with all its incumbent obligations and duties 
and she is also an aspirant to the new vistas that 
independence has opened up. She is standing on a 
tightrope of conflicts between old values and the new 
concepts, constantly making acrobatics to scrape through 
the demands of modernity, clinging to the norms of the last 

century, while claiming adherence to the present one She 
is still groping for her rightful place in the changing 

Women Battling Prejudice 

It is true that Asian countries have not experienced the 
more militant type of feminist movement prevalent in 
Europe and North America, yet it takes no small degree ot 
courage and perseverence to battle age-old prejudices and 
cultural barriers. In the struggle for independence in the 
formerly colonized countries, the support of women was 
indispensable It was therefore natural that when 
independence became a political reality, most constitutions 
in the developing countries guaranteed equality of women 
under the law. 

"It is often contended that the worldwide emancipation in 
the Asiatic. Latin American and African developing 
countries... is the late fruit ot the unselfish militant activities 
ot a small elite sect of women from the European and 
Anglo-Saxon countries." said Indonesia s Suwarni Saljo 
"While it is undeniable there is great truth in this 
contention, a closer study in the development of women s 
emancipation in Asian countries will reveal that there have 
been outstanding women who spoke out against the 
discrimination and ineguality ot rights between men and 
women-women who stood up against the view that 


fhe Laboui ( lazi Hi im 75 

women s place is that ot housewife alone, and that the 
wife h-is no destiny of her own. but follows her husband 
either to success or to failure 

"Through the ages many chapters have been written about 
the quest of man. It has been a long trail of thousands of 
years But the quest of woman, more specifically the 
emancipation of women, has an entirely modern ring Most 
cultures throughout the world have discriminated against 
women and it is really amazing that only after so many 
centuries, women have become conscious of their situation 
and set themselves on the path to emancipation " 

Real Work Just Starting 

Although the conference has ended, the real work is just 
beginning Some observers, impatient for action, heard only 
the long and to them tedious recital of government 

machinery set up to cope with or pay lip service to the 
very real privately expressed needs. 

But the real significance of the conference, it seems lies in 
the fact that so many countries responded, sending high 
calibre people to talk, to communicate, to share their 
friendship and ideas Not only was it proven that all 
countries, despite different ideologies and various stages of 
economic and social development, share and shoulder 
common burdens. It was also forcibly driven home that 
men and women everywhere have a common bond- the 
fact that we are all citizens of the universe, that our 
concerted efforts are necessary to the survival of the 
human race And that indeed, if we are to survive, we will 
have to keep on getting to know each other, helping each 
other and caring for each other. 

Ms Plowman is Program Officer for the Public Relations 
Branch of the Department. 

Rita Cadieux 

Justus Siboe, Kathleen Edwards 

ibour Gazette- Jan 75 


Sarojini Varadappan, India; Consuelo Ruiz Scheel, Guatemala; Kate Abankwa. Ghana 

The Seminar in Brief 

Rita Cadieux. Canadian representative to the UN 
Commission on the Status of Women chaired the 
meeting Vice-chairpersons were Svetla Dafkalova. 
Bulgaria; Consuelo Scheel. Guatemala, and Leticia 
Shahani of the Philhpines 

The Canadian delegation consisted of 10 women 
prominent in women's affairs As well as those 
already mentioned there was Florence Bird. 
Chairman of the Advisory Council on the Status of 
Women Dr Elizabeth Feniak. Chairperson. Manitoba 
Action Committee on the Status of Women Margaret 
Harris. Chairman. Saskatchewan Advisory Council on 
the Status of Women; Thelma Nicholson. UN 
Economic and Social Affairs Division Department of 
External Affairs: Laurette Robillard Chairman of the 
Quebec Council on the Status of Women: and Laura 
Sabia Chairman of the Ontario Status of Women 

Highlights of the recommendations for national 
machinery to combat ineguahty were: that both men 
and women have the right to full development; that 
women s development cannot be separated from 
national development; that all legal, political, social. 

government and non-governmental machinery should 
be used to eliminate discrimination and integrate 
women into development: and that although no single 
machinery would apply to all member states, every 
effort should be made to integrate women at all 
levels of the country s development 

The seminar suggested that to be truly effective, the 
machinery should be mandated by the government at 
the highest level, publicly acknowledged, and able to 
survive the winds of political change It suggested 
that statistics be gathered on women, collated and 
analysed scientifically. 

The seminar recommended that governments form 
national commissions with both male and female 
representatives from all walks of society with the aim 
of implementing integration, that women s bureaus 
become permanent units with full-time personnel: that 
a communications network be set up to encourage a 
two-way flow of information between grass roots and 
government; that special efforts be made to ensure 
that governments give equal representation to women 
in their UN delegations, and finally, that national 
machinery encourage governments to ratify 
conventions and ensure that government 
commitments are fully implemented 


The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 

The Grain Handler Dispute 



The peak of utter frustration in the long and unyielding 
battle to settle a labour contract in the Vancouver grain 
elevator terminals came towards the end ot a hot August. 

When the five terminals finally shut down completely at 8 
in the morning, not even a Philadelphia lawyer with an 
extra degree in industrial relations could tell you what it 

A strike or a lockout or what 7 Since May there had been 
a slowdown, admittedly Then came layoffs because of the 

Then pickets appeared, bearing locked out signs to 
retaliate against the layoffs. 

Then whatever workers remained inside were sent home. 
They promptly went onto the picket lines. 

The public at large, not hurt one iota by this whatever-you- 
want-to-call-it. either ignored the repetition of a history of 
gram elevator disputes on the West Coast, or looked on in 
utter amazement 

How could labour and management get embroiled in such 
a brick-wall-of-a-dispute that they would shut off the 

funnels pouring Canadian prairie grain into the holds of 
foreign ships 9 

How could they damage their homeland s reputation for 
delivering exports on time and providing grain for hungry 
mouths in foreign countries 9 

How could they take their Federal Government whii h 
seems to want to be so friendly and liberal in its dealings 
in labour relations, and grind it around in the middle of the 

The why or how of it all may never come out. simply 
because labour negotiations are mostly private business 
and although there may be documents verbatim reports 
on the exchanges at the bargaining table are never 
available What comes out is usually the haranguing of 
each side in the dispute, each posturing to get across to 
the public and the world at large that its position is right 

In this case the public knew that the grain piled up in 
boxcars, in prairie elevators 1,500 miles away, and even in 
farmers' storage bins, was not meant for the local flour 
mill, bakery and supermarket So let them wrangle on The 
farmers on the prairies, for their part, were busy getting 
prepared to harvest the new crop, somewhat worried about 
a late spring and early frost, but not that much worried 
about their bank accounts. So why kick up a real fuss 9 

The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 


Except for some protests from foreign customers about 
late deliveries the only people really involved were the 
labour relations adversaries, with the Government caught in 
the middle 

The Sad Story 

Turn back the clock It's not all down in black and white 
for the public to see. but enough information has been 
assembled to paint the generally sad story it is. 

Nobody had really paid too much attention to the grain 
elevator talks, even though they were long overdue for 
settlement However they had seldom been settled on time 
before, and people seemed to be holding their breath and 
crossing their fingers that this time a mutual agreement 
would eventually ensue. 

But on February 20th this year, with the contract almost 
three months beyond expiry the vocal little spokesman for 
the independent. 550-member Grain Workers Union, local 
333. began to bemoan the facts of another frustrating, 
time-consuming impasse. Henry Kancs. the unionist, told 
how his local had taken almost a year to settle their 
previous contract This meant it was almost a year 
retroactive, and there was just over a year before it 
expired on November 31, 1973. 

Little did Kancs know that it would take another seven to 
eight months to settle the new contract, and it would take 
a bill passed by Parliament this October to finally turn the 

Union Demands 

Kancs complained that the companies- Alberta and 
Saskatchewan wheat pools, United Gram Growers. Burrard 
and Pacific Terminals-were still trying to cut back benefits, 
although the talks had already gone through the 
conciliation officer stage Because of the companies' 
stance, the officers. Don Tysoe and Doug Cameron of 
Vancouver, were unable to bring about a settlement 

■_ :*•"«*•» y?** ■ 

international brewery workers into the Teamsters Union and 
left to find a new home in the labour movement. 

While the companies were seeking to reduce benefits no 
movement had taken place in all the hours of negotiation 
on the union's demands The workers wanted a $1 30-an- 
hour wage increase on the $4 96-an-hour base labourer's 
rate improved vacations, and full payment of health and 
welfare premiums They offered to work around the clock 
as Vancouver longshoremen do if the workers got pay 
premiums (Longshoremen get time and a half for the full 
afternoon shift and double time for the full graveyard shift ) 

"We II be in the longshoremen's union soon, so they might 
as well give it to us now. said Kancs His local was 
recently freed from the controversial merger of the 

Kancs timed his public complaint about the dragging tall 1 
to coincide with the Federal Government s appointment of 
a conciliation commissioner The commissioner was Dr 
Neil Perry, a dean at the University of Victoria, who kepi 
silent over the many ensuing months as controversy raged 
over the Perry report designed to settle the grain handler 

The Perry Report 

His report, made public in early May called for an 87-cent- 
an-hour pay boost from December 1. 1973 another 65- 
cent raise effective December 1. 1974. a cost of living 


The Laboui < iazetti i 

adjustment (COLA) clause, and a non-contributory pension 

The fully retroactive raise was the $4 96 base and a rate 
of $5 88 for journeymen tradesmen who maintain the 

Dr Perry also recommended improved vacations of four 
weeks after three years service: a new provision for six 
weeks vacation after 25 years of service, and an 
improvement in the previously negotiated guaranteed wage 
plan covering layoff situations The cost of living clause 
was to apply if the Consumer Price Index rose above 4 
per cent in a 1 2-month period For every additional full 
point rise in the index, the workers would get an across- 
the-board increase of 3 625 cents an hour 

The workers voted 75 per cent in favour of accepting the 
report, but the companies decided five days later that the 
document had "no basis for settlement." 

Gloomy Predictions 

As early as mid-May. Kancs was warning that the export ol 
grain through Vancouver could be halted by a strike or 
lockout He predicted a lockout. 

At the same time the elevator companies, through their 
chief negotiator. Vancouver lawyer William Mead, informed 
the Government that the Perry report amounted to a 48 
per cent boost in wages, including COLA, and a 61 per 
cent boost in total wages and fringe benefits. 

Sixty-one per cent became a figure of controversy as the 
months passed through the long, hot summer 

Meanwhile, the union was after the Government to take 
over the mostly prairie-based elevator companies, which 
ship their grain from country elevators to the coast by rail 
And as early as May 17 the companies started laying off a 
few employees, while Mead was denying that it was the 
beginning of a lockout 

force the companies to accept the Perry report as the final 

Munro told a Vancouver news conference that he could 
not commit another government, if elected, to impose the 
Perry terms on the companies, but he did not know how 
any other action could be taken because the report was 
so "reasonable in terms of equity and justice " Both sides 
pledged their principals and their members to obey the 

And they did obey, although the Munro timing did not quite 
work out 

The Rancour Grows 

After their big election win. the Liberals went off for 
vacations and the new Parliament was not scheduled to be 
called into session until September 30 The disputants 
rancour became gradually more apparent, as the 
companies announced further layoffs and the union 
repeated its lockout charges. 

It was May 28 when Mead unleashed a charge that the 
union workers were involved in a slowdown and that 
normal unloading of gram cars into the waterfront elevators 
had been drastically reduced 

Kancs did not hide the slowdown, explaining it was the 
result of frustration among the workers over having to wait 
for so long for a contract Mead threatened more layoffs 
due to lack of work if the slowdown continued At no time 
did the Government interpret the slowdown as a form of 
strike or the layoffs as a form of lockout Nor was there 
any action from Ottawa even though the employers were 
claiming that car unloadings were down as much as two- 

The tense situation eased when in June the elevator 
companies took back the workers they had laid off and 
reinstated a few they had suspended And the dispute 
began to fade while the politicians went electioneering and 
the labour code ban averted a total shutdown. 

Government Action 

Pressure for Settlement 

A few days later Labour Minister John Munro was in the 
thick of the dispute calling representatives of both sides to 
Ottawa for talks But the meeting failed on May 24 Munro 
was in Vancouver, where he announced that the 
Government had moved under Section 181 of the Canada 
Labour Code to ban any strike or lockout The ban was 
effective until after the July 8 federal election. 

The move was designed to keep the lid on until the 
Liberals were returned to power, and then have Parliament 

Then the Liberals were back in power with a good 
majority, and the ministers started putting pressure on the 
grain companies to accept the Perry report Little did they 
know how implacable those companies would be 

First Otto Lang, in charge of the Canadian Wheat Board, 
warned them that if the dispute wasn t ended so export 
grain could move normally. Parliament would impose a 
settlement Labour Minister John Munro joined the bid to 
convince the companies that the Perry report was a fan 

Th«> Labour Gazette-Jan 75 


one in these times If they did not accept the report, he 
said. Parliament would legislate it into existence when the 
newly-elected members were called back into session 
September 30 Not once, but twice. Prime Minister Trudeau 
publicly backed up the statements of his ministers. 

Throughout late July and early August speculation was rife 
that Parliament would be recalled early to settle the 
dispute, despite repeated cautioning by the ministers that 
this would not necessarily be the case. 

And it wasn t 

Accusations Fly 

Prior to the climax of this sorry labour relations experience, 
unofficial accusations were made that the grain companies 
were run by a "bunch of Tories whose sole purpose was 
to get the issue before Parliament and embarrass the 
Government. Suggestions were also rampant that the 
Government and the companies were involved in a 
conspiracy to hold up grain shipments to Far Eastern 
customers and then jack up the price Prospects of a 
much smaller 1974-75 crop added weight to these reports, 
but no one ever pinned it all down. 

The Gram Workers Union got a strike vote from their 
members but never used it Late in August the companies 
announced more layoffs, saying that they had no 
alternative because the union slowdown had drastically 
reduced the amount of available work 

Exports Halted 

When the layoffs became effective, the rest of the workers 
marched onto the picket lines at the five elevator terminals, 
completely halting the exports of prairie grain. 

They carried locked out" signs and resented anyone 
saying they were out on strike The companies, meanwhile, 
insisted that the workers were on strike because in no way 
could their layoffs be considered a lockout. 

Both sides were posturing The motives of the Grain 
Workers Union seemed to be apparent. They had been the 
good guys all through the dispute and wanted to keep it 
that way The companies motive might have been a bid to 
wipe out the bad guys" role they were assigned during 
most of the long months of haggling and haranguing over 
whether the Perry report was too costly for them and 
inflationary for the whole country. 

What they wanted to do was get the dispute before 
Parliament, where a real debate could be held on the 
inflationary effects of the Perry report They also wanted to 
have debate on their criticism of the Government for 
getting involved in the dispute, allegedly on the side of the 

But not even the total shutdown budged the Liberals from 
their decision to wait until Parliament reconvened and 
legislate the Perry report into existence. 

It was October 11 -six weeks after the total shutdown 
began-before the grain started moving again The long- 
sought parliamentary debate over the Perry repoit and its 
effects on the nation s economy was a flop. Little new was 
said or done as a result of the discussions by the 

While the unofficial reports circulated, the gram companies 
and the union engaged in a war of words and statistics 
over the Perry document The row was over the 
companies costing of the effects of the Perry report at a 
total increased labour cost, in wages and additional fringe 
benefits, of 61 per cent 

Controversial Figures 

During the summer months the 61 per cent figure was 
tossed about, argued back and forth, and in the end. held 
to be suspect Other such totals as 38. 43. 48 and S3 per 
cent were thrown at the reading public, which became 
thoroughly bewildered over it all. 

The only point agreed upon was that the Perry report was 
very expensive, and very rich. Nobody denied that 

Perry himself did not seem optimistic that his efforts at 
conciliation would settle the lengthening dispute In a 
covering letter he said it was clear that differences in 
expectations between the contracting parties-arising from 
a series of accumulated past issues as well as the special, 
inflationary circumstances of 1974 -remain too wide to be 
resolved through further conciliatory efforts He described 
his report as "some suggestions which, hopefully might 
form a basis upon which the two parties could, ultimately 
enter into a two-year agreement ." 

Perry seemed to foretell the future that it would take 
compulsory arbitration to bring the dispute to an end And 
that s what really happened Instead of a government 
board, however, it was an Act of Parliament that fori ed the 
companies to implement the document as the terms of a 
new two-year contract, which would be almost a year old 
when the ink dried 

The Gram Workers Union, of course, had accepted the 
report without delay and with considerable enthusiasm The 
members had their last raise of 40 cents an hour on 
December 1, 1972. but were still going to have to wait for 
the next one. 


The Labour Gazi'ltc- Jan 75 

Months of turmoil pleading and arguing were still ahead 
The gram cars brimming tull remained jammed into sidings 
between Vancouver and the prairie points of origin while 
the figures representing the percentage cost of Perry s 
recommendations kept on the move. 

It was early September when the best analysis was made 
public The employers distributed a document that simply 
said the Perry report would cost $1 52 an hour more in 
wages. 91 cents more in cost of living adjustments. 40 
cents more in pensions, and 20 cents in additional fringe 
benefits The total of $3 03 an hour over two years on a 
$4 96 an hour base laborer's rate is 61 per cent, the 
companies declared again Everybody knows you cost a 
labour contract on the base rate.' declared William Mead. 

Union View Supported 

But the Trade Union Research Bureau, an independent 
organization operating mainly in support of unions, went 
about ripping the employers costing apart The Bureau 
said that in their COLA figures the companies had added 
n the first adjustment of 19 cents twice ' The Bureau also 
described as false " the companies calculations on the 
new pension plan. 

Dr Perry did not estimate the cost.'' the Bureau 
:ontended He stated that the companies could have the 
option of paying the cost of a particular set of benefits as 
;omputed by an actuary or of agreeing in advance to a 
otal cost of 25 cents an hour, plus a small supplement for 
nembers too old to accumulate a reasonable pension This 
atler supplement comes to about 1.5 to 1 75 cents an 
lour, depending on the number of employees." 

The Bureau said the employers also ignored the fact that 
hey already had a pension plan If they are saying that 
he whole cost of Perry's pension recommendation is a net 
ncrease in cost, they are pleading guilty to what many of 
he employees have accused them of in the past- 
jretending to contribute to a plan which in fact costs them 

n addition, the union research body said, fringe benefits 
vill rise by less than the percentage wage in< rcise 
ecommended by Perry, but the employers added these 
tosts to the wage percentage For example, the wage 
M rease is 30 6 per cent for both labourers and 
radesmen. with the tradesmen getting a 28-cent-an-hour 
Ipecial adjustment 

Bjarnason also said the Perry settlement would cost 34 per 
cent without COLA and up to 43 per cent including COLA 
If we were inclined to exaggerate in the union s favour in 
the way the companies have exaggerated in their favour, 
we could make the percentage a great deal less" he 
declared "We are not contending this is a cheap 
settlement." Bjarnason went on. we are contending it is a 
just settlement and that it isn t 61 per cent or even 48 per 
cent " 

The Company View 

During the long argument. United Grain Growers president 
A E. Runciman in Winnipeg denied a published report that 
he had lowered the companies' cost estimate down to 48 
per cent from 61 per cent. Runciman was critical of 
Labour Minister Munro for picking up the report and trying 
to mislead the country into believing that he was bringing 
the parties together on the crunch issue -the cost of the 

He said that even if the Minister wanted to compare the 
basic wage plus fringe benefits, rather than the lower base 
rate, the increase for the whole package still was more 
than 50 per cent. 

Even in company circles it depended on whether you 
wanted to compare total increase in wages and fringes to 
the base rate, or to the previous cost of wages and 
fringes The latter method lowered the percentage and the 
former increased it. 

Through all this it had to be remembered that both sides 
were estimating the cost of the COLA clause on how 
much they expected the Consumer Price Index to rise over 
the term of the contract. The companies claimed the 
clause would cost them 91 cents an hour, whereas the 
union claimed 43 5 cents Actually, at a 10 per cent 
inflation rate, there would be 12 index point hikes by the 
end of the contract in November. 1975. or 43.5 cents At a 
12 per cent inflation rate, there would be 17 index point 
hikes, equalling 61.625 cents. So the companies were 
estimating their COLA cost at an inflation rate of more 
than 12 per cent. 

Either way. both sides could be wrong by the end of the 
contract, unless they are possessed of economic foresight 
unrivalled by other experts in labour, management and 


Jaid Emil B|arnason. head of the Bureau: The employers 
ave taken the 28 cents already included in the basic 30.6 
ter cent and added it on to the percentage They have 
one the same with the other fringe benefits 

The total shutdown came August 25, when the workers 
picketed three elevators to retaliate against layoffs and the 
companies locked out the employees of the two remaining 

ie Labour Gazette- Jan 75 


\m j 

Within two days, employer-spokesman Mead laid out the 
companies position, and no amount of persuasion could 
change his mind or the minds of the grain company 
presidents he represented. 

In a nutshell, they adopted their stand against accepting 
the Perry report because they wanted the issue, as it 
related to inflation, debated in the House of Commons 

As Mead put it, "We want to see some debate on the 
issue so it can be seen what the Government has been 
doing We want the right to run our own ship the next 
time Perhaps the Government won't be so guick to take 
sides in this when negotiations come up again ' Mead also 
alleged that the Government was blowing hot and cold'' 
on ending the dispute He recalled how the Liberals had 

enacted a strike or lockout ban by Order in Council prior 
to the July general election but after the election were 
willing to allow the dispute to run its course. 

The Companies' Argument 

An outside assessment of this tangled labour dispute 
would no doubt be unflattering to the grain terminal 
companies Their argument was that the Government sided 
with the grain workers and interfered with their chances of 
negotiating a settlement. They said that the Perry 
settlement was too costly for them and inflationary for the 
whole country And they would not accept the settlement 
voluntarily. They maintained their position so they could 
get the dispute before Parliament for a debate on the great 
wrong the Government had committed against them. 


The Labour Ga/ette Jan 75 


But in the tirst place, no one- not even the union- 
pretended that the Perry settlement was not expensive. It 
was the degree ot expense and the way it was calculated 
that was in dispute 

The general opinion was that the companies 61 per cent 
figure was an "overkill", stretched to the maximum degree 
Their warnings that the Perry report would become another 
St Lawrence seaway settlement, leapfrogging through the 
economy, also did not hold water in these inflationary 
times They said that other workers in the gram-handling 
industry and in waterfront operations - longshoremen and 
others - would want the Perry settlement as well. 

It just happened that inflation at the rate of 1 per cent per 
month, or more, as measured by the Consumer Price 
Index, was already upon the nation Perry report or no 
Perry report, workers were demanding big settlements and 
getting them. The settlements have been gradually 
escalating to over 14 per cent nationally and 15 per cent 
in B C . where the gram workers were able to read what 
"the other guys are getting." 

Suely the higher settlements could be traced to the 
Ccncimer Price Index rather than to the Perry report. 

It would take little imagination to picture a team of 
negotiators pressing for a raise to catch up with the cost 
of living, a general increase based on a company's profits, 
and a cost of living adjustment clause or some other form 
of protection for the increased income of their members 
But it would take a lot of imagination to picture the union 
negotiators walking into a session with the giants of 
industry and waving the Perry report in their faces. 

Finally the companies got their way. and the dispute 
wound up in Parliament for the debate on legislation 
forcing them to accept the Perry report The debate was a 
flop, because the Progressive Conservative opposition, 
which took up the battle of the grain companies, had no 
more to say than had already been said from late spring 
until early fall. And just as predictably, the legislation was 
adopted with the Government being supported by the New 
Democrats and the Social Credit members 

The companies argument that the Government interfered 
Jwith the dispute on the grain workers' side doesn't really 
'stand up either The companies were the first to apply for 
a conciliation officer to help them get the dispute settled in 
the early stages. Once that occurred, they were locked into 
a conciliation process under federal legislation The next 
step was either a conciliation board, or a conciliation 
bommissioner The history of past conciliation boards in 
he grain terminal industry had been an unhappy one. so 

the Government this time went for a new approach, the 
one-man commissioner 

The commissioner, of course, was Dr. Perry, and he made 
his controversial report in February. 

Up to this point, can the Government be accused of 
interfering 9 All it has really done is make available the 
conciliation facilities of the Department of Labour. 

It is also debatable whether the next development -the 
pre-election ban on a strike or lockout under a section of 
the Canada Labour Code-could be construed as 
interference on the side of the union 

The suggestions at that time were that the union wanted 
to get onto the picket line in order to bring the dispute to 
a head. If anything, the Government was interfering on 
behalf of itself, so it could get through the election 
campaign without a full stoppage of the major West Coast 
grain exports. 

The Real Issue 

Which leaves the most important issue of all-one that was 
overlooked or ridiculed during the struggle between labour, 
management and the Government. 

That issue is free collective bargaining 

Labour Minister John Munro kept saying he wanted the 
dispute settled voluntarily so that Parliament would not be 
put in the position of labour court Parliament is not 
eguipped for the job of settling labour disputes, he said 
What he was really saying. I suppose, is that if labour and 
management don t settle their disputes voluntarily they may 
find a body other than Parliament doing it for them 

In other words, a permanent instrument of compulsory 
arbitration may have to be set up within the Government 
to handle disputes involving the public interest Canada's 
foreign markets are public interest are they not 9 And 
would not a permanent instrument of compulsory arbitration 
amount to turning back the clock 9 

We had thought such compulsion had been put aside by 
governments in Canada in order to allow free collective 
bargaining to prevail What chance will there be if 
companies in other major segments of the industrial 
society of the country perform in a manner similar to the 
grain firms? 

The grain terminal companies could not settle their 
contract with the Grain Workers Union and so went to a 
third party-the Government-for help Then they didn t like 
the "help " They should have detailed in public their 

he Labour Ga^etle-Jan 75 


objections to the Perry report and then accepted it early 
last summer with an announcement that they were doing 
so with extreme reluctance, or however they wished to 
describe the situation 

And they could have said that they were putting the 
question of inflation under the responsibility of the 
Government because, in the end. it will be the Government 
that will have to answer to the people of the country, not 
just the grain companies. 

If they had taken this action they would have made their 
point just as effectively, since the outcome of the fight with 
the Government was inevitable anyway. They would also 
have avoided whatever additional damage was done to the 
country's reputation for not living up to its commitments to 
deliver grain on time And they would have saved an 
estimated $10 million in demurrage charges for deepsea 
ships that lay idle in Vancouver s outer harbour waiting for 

The farmer-members of the three wheat pool companies 
involved in the management group will find the charges 
deducted from the final payment for their crops The 
farmers were reported to have had mixed feelings about 
the pros and cons of the dispute over the Perry report 
Maybe they will be less mixed when they see their final 

Perhaps it was true that the farmers were more concerned 
during the dispute with the prospects for the new crop 
While the labour relations disputants were at each other s 
throats the farmers were plagued by a wet spring, a hot 
summer, and an early frost As a result it is estimated that 
the crop this year will be about 500 million bushels, or 
nearly 100 million less than the previous crop, which was 
tied up so long in the elevators and grain cars. 

During the summer the Government grappled with a 
proposal to appoint an industrial inquiry commission to 
investigate the labour relations situation in the terminals 

In the end it decided to wait until the Perry report had 
been imposed And then Mr Justice E D Bayda of the 
Saskatchewan Court of Queen s Bench was named for the 

Now the companies will have their internal affairs probed, 
and the union will have its complaints about company 
treatment of the workers aired by an impartial investigator. 
Judge Bayda held preliminary discussions with both sides 
with a view to setting down ground rules for the probe. 
and expected the inquiry to take three to six months 

That would be well in advance of the next round of 
bargaining between the companies and the Grain Workers 

■ » T T — I 

— I r ■ »-* ".. ~1— 

, ■ i | ■ I 

T ■ '" 7- - — 




Union That is unless the probe results in a 
recommendation for a takeover by the Government of the 
grain handling terminals 

But don't bet on a takeover to be the main 
recommendation The objective would seem to be to find 
out why the companies and the union have had so much 
difficulty settling contracts over the past decade, whethi i 
personnel relations have been as bad as the union has 
claimed, whether the bargaining process can be improved. 
and how 

If improvements can be accomplished in these areas a 
government takeover would not seem to be an immediate 

George Dobie is a labour reporter for the Vancouver Sun 


The Laboui G izetti 



The Federal Government is expected to re-examine its 
entire immigration policy early this year, following 
publication of a long-awaited Green Paper setting out 
broad policy options for government consideration The 
Paper will be the basis for a full-scale public discussion of 
immigration policy before the Government introduces 
legislation to rewrite the 1952 Immigration Act. 

Richard Tait. chairman of the task force established a little 
over a year ago to conduct the study, says the Green 
Paper is not aimed specifically at finding ways to curb the 
pace of immigration Our efforts are directed entirely at 
delineating the problems and indicating the choices open to 

ida " Nevertheless, the paper sets out the policy 
options open to Canada in such a way that some receive 
support while others do not 

Tait is concerned more with immigration patterns, and the 
country s ability to shape them, than with volume. He feels 
we have reached the stage where we must look carefully 
at the philosophy behind the system because the falling 
domestic birth rate has made immigration the major 
determinant of Canada s population growth. He is anxious Canadians think about the sort of society they want 
A/Ve have to make sure we get it right as to who we want 
I to come The real requirement is to see that the norms 

we apply in the selection process really work to pick out 
those people who can be the most productive. " 

It will be late in 1975. at the earliest, before new 
immigration legislation can be expected and it might be 
mid- 1977 before the immigration flow would be 
substantially affected Meanwhile, economic and social 
conditions abroad have increased Canada's attractiveness 
to potential immigrants. Such traditional receiving countries 
as Australia and New Zealand are closing their doors, 
slumping European countries are turning their backs on 
foreign guest workers.' and the U.S. with 10 times 
Canada s population, admitted only about 390000 
immigrants in 1974. The result is that would-be immigrants 
often look instead to Canada. 

A Popular Destination 

Interest in immigiation to Canada is at its highest peak 
since 1957. noted Manpower and Immigration Minister 
Robert Andras The numbers of people seeking to 
emigrate to Canada in the first six months of 1974 have 
increased by almost 48 per cent over the substantial levels 
of 1973 Immigrant landings in the same period (104 089) 
are 47 per cent more than in the first six months of 1973 
and 92 per cent more than in the same period in 1972 " 
Andras predicted immigrant landings of more than 200.000 
for 1974. which would make it the highest figure since 

Labour Gazette- Jan 7f> 


1957. when 229 000 were admitted, and the second 
highest since the 1913 record ol 400.000 Average yearly 
intake in the past 10 years has been 159.000 immigrants. 

Unlike other countries. Canada has no ceiling or quota on 
the number of immigrants who may be admitted in a year, 
either globally, or by country of citizenship or application. 
The size of the annual immigration movement is 
determined by the numbers who apply, the proportion 
screened in " by the selection system, the proportion who 
change their minds after acceptance, and the rate at which 
applications can be processed. 

Slowing the Tide 

In February 1974. Andras introduced interim measures 
aimed at slowing down the flow of immigrants to Canada. 
When the number of applications continued at a high level, 
further action was deemed necessary So. in October, the 
Minister announced even tighter regulations to slow the 
tide of immigration while longer-term policies are being 

Canada s selection system requires at least 50 points for 
admission Under the new regulations, both independent 
and nominated applicants who cannot prove they have a 
lob waiting for them or that their skills are needed in the 
area in which they intend to settle, will lose 10 points from 
the total to which they are entitled Put differently, they will 
have to score 60 points on the government s points 
admission scale instead of 50 as in the past, while people 
who have a job arranged need score only 50 points. 

Prospective immigrants will not receive credit for pre- 
arranged employment, however, unless it has been 
established that no Canadian citizen or landed immigrant is 
available to fill the vacancy The plan, therefore, is to 
encourage newcomers to settle where the jobs are, rather 
than to head for the nearest big city. 

For the time being, they will not be told upon arrival that 
they must go where directed or face deportation That may 
come later 

The cutback coincides with predictions of rising 
unemployment -as high as 7 5 per cent, if Conference 
Board of Canada projections are accurate It comes also at 
a time when housing is scarce and expensive and many 
social services are strained to a critical point, particularly in 
Canada s three major cities, where half of the immigrants 
who came last year chose to settle. 

The new regulations take into account the natural concern 
of permanent residents in Canada about job opportunities," 
said Andras They are also designed to protect immigrants 
who might otherwise have difficulty finding jobs, housing 

and social services . And they are far less sweeping and 
more satisfactory than those changes we would be forced 
to contemplate a year or two from now if we did not act 

Andras made it clear that the changes in the regulations 
would have no effect on the movement of sponsored 
dependants, who come to Canada to rejoin their families, 
and that the controls would be applied equally in all 
countries of the world He stressed the Government s 
"resolve to encourage the flow of Francophone immigrants 
to Canada" within the constraints established by the new 

Andras' controls may be "universal and non-discriminatory 
in application, but there is no denying that their impact falls 
most heavily on immigrants from Asia. Africa Latin America 
and the Caribbean, who often barely top the required 50 
points for admission, even with the help of kinship points 

Criticism from Several Quarters 

Not surprisingly, the new rules drew criticism from some 
community and ethnic groups and from Liberal members of 
Parliament who have large immigrant populations in their 
ridings Others, convinced of the need for a multiracial 
Canada charged that the Government was simply bowing 
to pressure from Canadians who resent the influx from 
non-white countries The composition of the immigrant 
movement has changed." Andras had said, "with particular 
increases evident among those immigrants admitted 
because of family relationships, especially from the 
developing countries." 

It is easy to see the snowballing effect such family 
relationships' could have on Canada s immigration patterns 
as each nominated immigrant himself becomes the means 
of admitting to Canada several other nominated immigrants 
who would nominate others in turn. 

Still other motives were imputed to the Government 
Immigration is being used as a scapegoat for the failure 
of the Government s monetary and fiscal policies ." asserted 
Dennis McDermott. Canadian Director of the United Auto 
Workers union "I know of no instance where immigration 
quotas had any influence whatsoever on unemployment." 
he said 

McDermott's view was echoed by Judith Maxwell, a senior 
economist with the CD Howe Research Institute. The 
relationship between unemployment levels and the ability of 
immigrants to get jobs is at best tenuous, she says, 
because immigrants are usually willing to do many menial 
jobs that Canadians, cushioned by welfare benefits, disdain 
In addition, Maxwell says, thousands of job vacancies are 
opening up in various industries and parts of the country 
where there aren't enough people to fill them (see box) 


The Labour Gazelle Jan 75 

Despite growing concern over unemployment and 
startling increases m immigration. Canada needs 
thousands of workers to fill a wide range of skilled 
and semi-skilled jobs Nowhere is this more evident 
than in the Prairie provinces, now suffering from the 
worst labour shortage in memory The reason: a 
booming Prairie economy based on high prices for 
wheat and oil. and rapidly expanding industry. Alberta 
alone needs 100,000 workers 

But labour shortages aren t confined to the Prairies. 
Even in the traditionally underemployed Mantimes 
and Quebec, thousands of jobs aren t filled. Needed 
are machinists, nurses, cooks, maids, waiters, forestry 
workers, roadbuilders. construction workers and 
labourers, to mention a few. British Columbia reports 
similar shortages as well as a chronic shortage of 
mine workers. 

Gerwm Greasley. director of the Winnipeg Builders' 
Exchange, echoed sentiments across the country 
when he said he was bitter about a welfare and 
unemployment scheme that competes with employers 
for workers. The situation boils down to sectors and 
provinces just stealing bodies from each other.'' he 
declared Higher wages in British Columbia, for 
example, have lured many tradesmen to the west 
cu;ist, while hydro projects in northern Manitoba have 
drawn hundreds of workers from labour-short 
Winnipeg The labour raiding may intensify in the 
coming months as a number of new projects in the 
Western provinces energy and resource industries 
get underway. 

Robert Andras. in a strong defence of the Canadian 
work ethic, told the Canadian Chamber of Commerce 
in September that Canadians are still willing to do 
tough, dirty jobs but that they want personal 
satisfaction as well as monetary rewards I don t 
think we can rely on lowpaid immigrants to do the 
dirty work/ he said 

John Bonus, managing director of the Mining 
Association of Canada, agrees with Andras that 
higher wages alone won't solve labour shortages. 
But he speaks for many other employers when he 
compares young Canadian workers unfavourably with 
immigrants he has dealt with from Southern Europe. 
Poland and the Ukraine 

Statistics in the U S . however, show an increase in 
the number of people willing to take menial jobs 
And good wages are part of the reason San 
Francisco, for example, where street sweepers now 
earn $12,000 a year going up to $17,000 in June, 
reports no shortage of street sweepers 
Contract labour is seen by many employers— 
particularly those in the energy and resource 
industries- as the only solution to Canada's serious 
labour shortages Such a system, similar to the farm 
harvest programs operated in Canada from the 
Caribbean and Mexico, would import workers when 
they re needed and send them home when they 
aren t. 

Those who favour contract labour cite business 
losses because of job vacancies, high turnover, 
slowdowns and shutdowns. They argue that the 
system benefits everyone: Canadians, the people who 
come here from the poorer countries, and the poorer 
nations themselves The latter are inclined to agree. 
The system-practiced in Europe for years-eases 
pressure on their welfare and public service 
programs, improves their international balance of 
payments, and upgrades the skills of exported 

Those opposed to contract labour say it is 
exploitative and degrading. They point to the "guest 
worker'' problems evident today in several European 
countries Union spokesmen, for their part, fear that 
the system would undermine Canadian wages and 
work conditions, create a labour surplus and weaken 
the bargaining position of local workers 
Although Immigration Department spokesmen 
acknowledge that labour shortages have grown and 
that there is pressure from some employers to have 
a system for importing workers for short periods, 
they say that there are no plans to change the 
current employment visa system before the Green 
Paper debate, which is expected to include a full 
discussion of the many implications and problems of 
guest worker programs. Close to 100.000 temporary 
work visas were issued in 1974 for periods varying 
between a few days for visiting entertainers to one 
year for other jobs. 

!« estimates that the construction industry alone needs 
Ime 100 000 extra workers. Andras' reply is that 
Emigrants head for Toronto (35 per cent). Montreal (12 
||r cent) and Vancouver (9 per cent), and his main 
incern is the burden they re putting on housing and 
licial services in these cities "If we did not take action to 
strain the increase we could well have 300,000 
* migrants in 1976. more than half of them settling in 
Vonto. Montreal and Vancouver." he explained. The new 

measures are expected to hold this year's immigration total 
to 200.000 instead of a projected 250,000. 

The regulations "will not prevent employers with a genuine 
need for labour unavailable in Canada from selecting 
immigrants to meet their needs." Andras said Indeed 
when conditions warrant we will take steps to help speed 
the entry of workers destined to employers whose 
reguirements are particularly pressing." Canada would also 

Labour Gazette-Jan 75 


continue to "deal compassionately with refugees, victims ol 
oppression and cases where other humanitarian conditions 
apply, he added 

Nominees Lose Special Status 

The new control greatly reduces the advantage previously 
enjoyed by nominated applicants in gaining admission to 
Canada They are now in a position much closer to that of 
independent applicants. 

Independent immigrants are those who are accepted 
because they seem well qualified for the work force. 
Sponsored immigrants are not subject to the point system 
They are admitted because they are Canadian residents' 
dependants (husband or wife, fiance or fiancee, unmarried 
children under 21, parents or grandparents over 60, parents 
or grandparents under 60 if widowed and unable to work, 
orphaned brothers or sisters, orphaned nephews, nieces or 
grandchildren under 18) 

The nominated immigrant gains admission to Canada partly 
because he has a relative here who signs his application. 
Although he is not a dependant of someone already here, 
he gets points if he has a relative here, especially if the 
relationship is close But he must also have some limited 
cvalification for the labour market in Canada. 

In 1973. 53 per cent of those admitted to Canada as 
immigrants were independent. 24 per cent were nominated 
and 23 per cent were sponsored The figures for the first 
six months of 1974 were 30 per cent. 23 per cent and 47 
per cent respectively. 

Because nominated immigrants tend to come from the 
developing countries where kinship ties are strong, the 
new control measures will probably reduce immigration 
from Asia Africa and the Caribbean In the first six months 
of 1974, 35 per cent of newcomers from Asia and 33 per 
cent from Africa were nominated, compared with 25 per 
cent of immigrants from Europe. 14 per cent from the 
Caribbean, and 4 per cent of newcomers from the U.S. 

Nominated Class in Disfavour 

The nominated immigrant comes in for special and 
generally unfavourable attention in one version of the 
Green Paper, parts of which have been leaked to the 
press The paper notes that although the creation of the 
nominated class was designed primarily to help reunify 
families, most nominated immigrants, when questioned, said 
they came to Canada for economic reasons rather than to 
be with their families More than half become part of the 
workforce and-according to the critics-contribute to 
Canada s unemployment problem 

The employment record of the nominated immigrant is 

unimpressive, says the Green Paper The data indicate 
that a high proportion of nominated immigrants entering the 
workforce have not possessed the skills most likely to 
permit their rapid integration The fact that members of this 
category have frequently not been qualified for jobs in 
significant demand has meant that their employment 
experience in Canada has often been unsatisfactory ." 

Immigration Department studies show also that when the 
nominated immigrant runs into difficulties, the person who 
nominated him often does not fulfil his financial obligation 
to support his relative 

The Green Paper says the proper balance between family 
claims and the demands of the labour force must be 
achieved: this is a crucial issue that must be clarified in 
the formulation of future immigration policy ." 

The Green Paper, as it is now drafted, expresses concern 
that the continuation of the present immigration trend may 
bring a marked change in the makeup of the country s 
population Statistics reveal a rapid increase in the number 
of immigrants from non-traditional areas, an increase that 
the Green Paper describes as probably the most 
important change of all those that have occurred since 
the removal in 1967 of discriminatory regulations 

A New Immigration Pattern 

The highest relative increase in the first six months of 
1974 occurred among immigrants admitted from South 
America who numbered 6.505 against 1.956 in the 
corresponding period in 1972. an increase of 233 per cent 
Similarly, immigrants from Africa increased from 1,391 to 
4,596 (230 per cent), immigrants from South Asia increased 
from 2,751 to 7.620 (177 per cent) and immigrants from 
the Caribbean increased from 4.019 to 11.082 (176 per 
cent) The greatest increase in applications received in the 
first six months of 1974 occurred in Afnca-94 per cent 
over the corresponding period in 1973,-followed by Asia 
with a 57 per cent increase. 

The new pattern of immigration raises questions about the 
"absorptive capacity of Canadian society." according to the 
Green Paper, and challenges Canada s big cities that have 
been obliged to absorb significant numbers of people with 
backgrounds and cultures unfamiliar to the majority of their 
established residents." 

"If that concern dominates the final draft, then the Green 
Paper is certain to touch off a hot debate when it is finally 
released, commented Time. The magazine quotes 
University of Toronto Sociologist Lorna Marsden as saying 

"Racism has always been present in Canadian society, but 
you can cope with it if it is not politically mobilized The 
problem is the way immigrants and visible minorities 
become scapegoats for our own historical and economic 
problems. " University of Toronto political scientist Freda 
Hawkins told Time. "It's wrong for the media to suggest 


The Laboui Gazette— Jan 75 

that there is a dangerous state of racial disharmony when 
it doesnt exist " What is growing she points out. is a 
worldwide apprehension about the future and Canada's 
position in it The world looks unsafe and the future looks 
dangerous ." 

Yet despite the undercurrent of resentment that may be 
building up. Canadian cities are racially harmonious places 
to live right now. The main thing, says Professor Tony 
Richmond of York Universitys Departmont of Ethnic 
Studies, is that we have had a lot of luck Our areas of 
ethnic concentration are too small to be described as 
I ghettos We ought to be pleased that there have been no 
race riots and that immigrants are getting many of the 
basic things they require We could do more in the social 
services field, but the whole notion of cultural pluralism has 
given immigrants a sense of security here " 

University of Toronto s Dr Hawkins, an authority on 
immigration, approves of Andras' measures to stem the 
flow of immigrants while Canada's basic immigration 
legislation is under review but she believes that the 
country will suffer if it suspends immigration altogether. 
"We can't hold this amount of space for only 22 million 
people she says. If we don't have at least a moderate- 
iZ( -1 immigration program and show the world that we are 
prepaid to take in people we will be subject to major 
nternational pressures Moreover. Canada's borders might 
be breached by countless illegal immigrants, she warns. 

The Choices for Growth 

Prof Hawkins sees Canada faced with four alternatives: 
Zero population growth 

Slow population growth, giving the country a population 
3f about 27 or 28 million by the end of this century 

■Moderate growth such as Canada has had for the past 
|10 years This would probably result in a population of 33 
pr 35 million by the year 2000. 

j-AH-out population growth resulting in a population of 
about 40 million by the end of the century 

Ml-out growth, she said, would put major strains on the 
abour market, housing, and social services "I would 
entatively favour moderate growth she added I would 
nyself like to see a somewhat larger Canadian population 
o give us more resources for the things we want to do." 
)ur larger size would also give us greater influence in 
vorld affairs, Hawkins suggested To avoid the problems of 
'vercrowding in Canada's major cities, she believes it is 
ssential that immigrants be encouraged to spread more 
jvenly across the country This would naturally reguire 
Wore federal-provincial co-operation to provide jobs. 

housing and social services for immigrants, she says 

Special Problems 

A number of other immigrant problems call for solutions. 
Exploitation, for example, may occur in the form of 
underpayment for employment or overcharging for goods 
and services." notes the Green Paper One of the frequent 
complaints from immigrants, it says, "is that employers 
exploit the immigrant's lack of Canadian experience to pay 
low wages " While newcomers who are not well educated 
may be paid less than the going wage for their occupation 
highly trained immigrants may encounter resistance from 
professional bodies or unions Immigrants are troubled by 
non-recognition of their professional or trade qualifications 
the document observes In many cases, immigrants pay for 
employment or other counselling that is freely available 
from government or from other non-profit agencies in the 
community They are unaware that they have a right to 
these services 

Another problem raised by the Green Paper is the isolation 
of housewives and older people who have no opportunity 
for learning either of the official languages Although 
language training in English or French is usually available 
for immigrants headed for the workforce, those who are 
too old or too young to work, as well as housewives, are 
usually not eligible This tends to isolate them from 
Canadian society Moreover, children attending schools 
unequipped to deal with their special language needs can 
suffer handicaps that will follow them through adult life A 
further problem for immigrants is the unavailability of 
interpreters in emergency situations particularly at hospitals, 
police stations and other institutions providing services that 
can be urgently needed at any time of day or night 

The Green Paper expresses concern over the decline m 
the number of French-speaking immigrants and immigrants 
to Quebec at a time when the province s birth rate has 
fallen to the lowest of any Canadian province Although the 
immigration service abroad has been actively seeking new 
pools of French-speaking immigrants and has opened 
immigration offices in a number of French-speaking 
countries, the decline in Francophone people continues 
Quebec was the intended destination of only 15 6 per cent 
of the immigrants admitted during the first six months of 
1974 Another problem is the tendency of immigrants to 
Quebec from outside Canada's two official language groups 
to learn English in preference to French 

The Green Paper suggests that Canadians would probably 
want to maintain the present proportion in Canada of 
Francophones and Anglophones Richard Tait. chairman of 
the group that authored the paper, suggested two ways to 
remedy the situation in Quebec He proposed that the 
Government increase selection facilities in French-speaking 
and other countries with cultures whose people might be 

he Labour Gazette -Jan 7', 


readily assimilated in Quebec, that it take steps to make 
would-be immigrants more aware of the bicultural facts of 
life in Canada and that it stress more fully the attractions 
of Quebec 

Provincial or Federal Right? 

The right of the provinces to approve or reject future 
immigrants may emerge as one of the most controversial 
issues in the formulation of a new immigration policy 
Quebec, for instance wants veto power over immigrants 
because it is worried about the high proportion of English- 
speaking newcomers to the province The Federal 
Government, which has always had exclusive authority 
over all immigration, is treading very carefully in replying to 
Quebec and other provinces on the subject. The 
provinces have expressed a desire to play a greater role in 
the development of immigration policy, remarked Andras. 
Following the publication of the Green Paper, it is my 
intention to discuss thoroughly with them the immigration 
options available to Canada" he said. Ontario- the 
province that receives about half of all immigrants- 
criticized the Department of Immigration for altering 
immigration regulations in October without prior 
consultation with the provinces It would appear that 
government policies on immigration have already been 
formulated by department officials and the Green Paper is 
only a showpiece, said Joe Sorbara. a member of 
Ontario's 24-member Council on Multiculturalism The 
principal advantage of giving the provinces the right to 
approve or reject immigrants would be that they could 
tailor their immigration programs to meet their particular 

A Sampling of Editorial Opinion 

Racial Question 

It is almost a taboo here to talk about it No politician 
wants to be quoted on it but it is plainly present When 
they speak of avoiding problems thai afflict cities in the 
U S . they mean limitinq immigration of non-whites- 
especially blacks-into metropolitan centres. Peter Rehak. 

Ugly Realities 

Our current immigration debate centres around the 
question of whether Canada really is a mosaic society and 
if so whether Canada is ready for large-scale immigration 
of people who are non white . Our treatment of our own 
native people would seem to indicate that most Canadians 
the French-speaking perhaps more than the English- 
speaking are white supremacists at heart The feeling of 
French Canadians could even be refined to one of white 
French-speaking supremacy, in so far as the Quebec 

jurisdiction is concerned Viewed in this light, the 
Government s stiffening of immigration regulations is no 
more than recognition of realities- ugly realities no doubt, 
but no more ugly than the realities of violence that might 
result from uncontrolled non- white immigration... We may 
be branded in the international community as intolerant 
For Canada the most fashionable thing would be to throw 
the doors open to all comers and to be colour-blind as 
our Government has tried to be in recent years More 
colour blind it is fair to say than any other country in 
receipt of large-scale immigration We are great ones for 
saying one thing and meaning another, and for disguising 
dis< nmination on our part while criticizing others Perh 
a convenient cover-up at this stage would be to plead that 
we are not ready to contemplate becoming a true multi- 
racial society until we solve the problem and settle the 
grievances of our indigenous non-whites. Charles Lynch. 
Southam News Services 


In the process of developing a new immigration policy for 
Canada the Federal Government has started with a false 
premise That premise is that immigrants are a 
problem. ..that immigrants cause unemployment thai lh< , 
create demands for housing where housing may already be 
in short supply, and that they strain our welfare and social 
services. The facts point in precisely the opposite 
direction.. |As| Dr Joseph Kage. national executive vice- 
president of Jewish Immigrant Aid Services of Canada |put 
it | at a Toronto conference on future immigration policv It 
has been proven that immigration has never contributed to 
a slowdown but rather to an impetus ot growth.. There 
might be temporary difficulties, but not because of 
immigration— it's because of certain economic and social 
policies or international trade policies that Canada may go 
through.' Sure, there are unemployed Canadians There 
are also employers- in Alberta in Winnipeg in British 
Columbia in parts of Ontano-who can t find people to fill 
jobs Do you therefore deny these jobs to immigrants and 
tell the employers to go out of business 9 

One needn't go farther than into the streets of Metropolil u 
Toronto to see the contribution immigrants make to the 
economic, social and cultural life of the city Look al the 
shops, the restaurants, the small service businesses. Listen 
to the conversation at a construction site — is it Italian. 
Portuguese or Greek 7 Count the number of Ontario 
scholars each year who are members ol immigrant 

Indeed, there can be no more fitting testimony to the 
immigrant's contribution to Toronto than that its new I 
proudly unfurled last week, was designed by an immig< 


I he i at* mi Ga •■ "■ I i 

Canadas new immigration policy must continue to look on 
Immigrants as assets. So they have proven in the past, so 
Ihey will continue to prove in the future. The Toronto Star. 

\Peopie Needed 

Only the most fanatical advocates of zero-growth would 
argue that Canada can prosper and meet its international 
responsibilities with only 22 million people spread across 
half a continent and some of the worlds largest reserves 
of minerals, energy and foodstuffs. But with the birthrate 
falling we cannot look to natural increase to keep the 
population growing at a reasonable rate We need 
Immigrants The mounting debate on immigration policy. 
[therefore should not focus on whether to admit foreigners. 
n.r real questions are about how many to admit and how 
"Ct them from the millions who would like to come to 
panada A new immigration policy should take account of 
he fact that there is an increasing number of |Obs. in the 
service industries of the cities as well as frontiers that 
established Canadians are reluctant to do These jobs 
phould be fully open to newcomers We should seek not 
only new skills, but also muscles and the willingness to 
jse them where they are needed to keep the Canadian 
pconomy expanding The Toronto Star. 

IVothmq Drastic 

["here is nothing very drastic about the Governments new 
ules on immigration The restrictions should, in the face of 
) vast increase in the number of people who want to 
:ome to Canada keep the flow down to a scale the 
lountry can cope with (The green paper) is supposed to 
inswer some basic questions about future immigration 
policy, and there are plenty of indications that officials 
vithm the (immigration) department are scared silly about 
hotential public reaction to future immigration Whatever the 
lasts of those fears, there is no reason to believe that 
Canada will be able to do without immigrants in the 
breseeable future. The Montreal Star. 

yew Loopholes 

la is at it again-inviting immigration corruption The 
lew immigration rules pending legislation in a couple of 
pars are being presented as tough new controls. In reality 
hey are really soft, new loopholes. 

Pne can t escape the feeling that the supposedly tough 
Pd restrictive terms are really propaganda designed to 
pothe genuine apprehensions of many Canadians about 
my erratic, irresponsible immigration regulations that 

. irs have led to confusion discrimination, controversy 
bb Andras is continuing the tradition originally designed 
|y Tom Kent and Jean Marchand when the latter was 

i' nation Minister under Mike Pearson Toronto Sun 

Nobody Really Knows 

If immigration were properly managed as part of a fully- 
developed manpower and economic policy in Canada the 
numbers of immigrants the country could absorb might well 
exceed 250.000 even in times of economic slump In the 
meantime, there is no way to tell how the 200.000 
immigrants who may come to Canada (this) year will affect 
the Canadian unemployment situation, itself a confusing 
mass of contradictory statistics showing continuing high 
unemployment in the lace of serious worker shortages in 
many fields. 

When nobody really knows what is happening, let alone 
what will happen, it is probably politically wise to announce 
a tightening of immigration It will make a lot of Canadians 
feel better, no doubt including some who are officially 
unemployed because they feel some types ol work are 
beneath them and more suited to immigrants The Ottawa 

Flexibility Needed 

To overcome the problem of finding people to do the work 
which Canadians refuse, greater flexibility is needed 
Something similar to the work permit system in Western 
Europe, with the right to apply for citizenship from within 
Canada would be beneficial because it would create an 
opportunity for the workers to gauge Canadian conditions 
while also providing a screening process lor the Canadian 
Government. The Gazette. 

Political Basis 

There are suggestions that the green paper will lean 
toward cutting back on the nominated group of immigrants 
This seems reasonable If the immediate and dependent 
family of a Canadian resident is admitted il provision is 
made for cases involving compassion, then it would be 
more just than is the present situation if <ill other 
candidates for entry had to apply on the basis of a point 
system which gave distant relationship to a Canadian 
resident no value. This would mean all immigrants 
(outside immediate family members) had an equal chance 
of entry It would mean that Canadas own needs would 
be given first consideration. 

It is also suggested, however that the green paper will 
lean toward preserving the present proportions in Canada 
of those who speak English and those who speak French. 
That is a proposal that will require considerable 
amplification The capacity to speak one of the official 
languages of Canada can rationally and fairly be 
considered as an economic factor in admitting immigrants 
they will be able to fit into the economy better and more 
rapidly if they can speak one of the languages of work 

Jan 7 s ) 


But to introduce a policy which sought to preserve existing 
proportions of those who speak English and those who 
speak French would be to place immigration on a political 
rather than an economic basis: at least it would seem to 
do so unless the Government has some arguments it has 
not yet produced It is hard to see how that could be 
made acceptable. The Globe and Mail 

Immigrants Threaten Votes 

What s really worrying Ottawa I'm persuaded, is the effect 
wide-open immigration will have on the demographic 
balance in this country That s a fancy way of saying that 
because the great majority of immigrants are not French 
and because Quebec has the lowest birthrate in Canada, 
present trends will soon reduce the ratio of Francophones 
to the total population even below what it is today And 
that development would, in simple political terms, play 
havoc with the Liberal party's long-range and historic game 
plan for retaining power 

It is neither slanderous nor racist. I trust to point out that 
without a solid bloc of Quebec seats, the Liberals would 
not have held office for 32 of the past 39 years and would 
not be in office today. This is the elementary Canadian 
political reality 

With immigration expected to reach 250.000 next year, 
barring the new restrictions, and with the rate on entries 
steadily escalating, there would be perhaps 3 million 
newcomers admitted within the next decade Assume a 
relatively high birthrate among them and you can see 
things getting out of hand. 

Liberal fortunes are tied to the concept of a stable ethnic 
mix. meaning that come hell or high water the French 
must make up a third of the total Otherwise. God forbid, 
the Anglos and others ' might swamp Quebec in an 
irresistible tide of votes votes cast not necessarily for the 
Liberals-indeed judging from recent electoral experience, 
much more likely to go to the Conservatives. Such a 
consummation, all public-spirited Liberals will agree, is 
devoutly not to be wished, anticipated or even for the 
slightest moment countenanced Hence, the immigration 
"crisis. " Dennis Braithwaite. The Toronto Star. 

Discrimination Against Underdeveloped 

Despite the government s denials, the new regulations 
announced by Immigration Minister Robert Andras 
discriminate against the underdeveloped world in favor of 
countries with high levels of skill and education 
Discrimination may not be the intent But it will likely be 
the effect . The Canadian economy will not necessarily 
benefit Skills not needed at a given time may be 
desperately needed a few months later. Meanwhile. 

applicants with these skills have been rejected In an 
economy as volatile as Canada s. the kind of fine-tuning 
Mr. Andras seeks is virtually impossible 
His real goal is simply to reduce immigration He is candid 
about that In a country which owes so much to the 
industry, fortitude, enterprise and thrift of so many 
immigrants, that goal is debatable. The Citizen. Ottawa 

Human Society 

| Is there to be a return to racial origin as a key factor in 
our immigration policy 9 1 Probably the issue hasnt yet been 
decided Mr. Andras is inviting a consensus, which is really 
an abdication of the leadership the Government should 
provide His own views can be determined from the great 
emphasis he has placed lately on the expanding number of 
immigrants from Asia Africa and the Caribbean. 

In a statement September 30. he drew particular attention 
to the changing pattern of immigration ." He said South 
American immigrants increased by 233 per cent between 
1972 and 1974 (the first six months) from 1 956 to 6.505; 
African settlers by 230 per cent, from 1.391 to 4 596; 
South Asians from 2.751 to 7.620. or 177 per cent, and 
Caribbeans from 4.019 to 11.082. or 176 per cent 

These percentage figures sound fearful, but are reminiscent 
of the calculations sometimes issued by developing 
countries Car production has increased by 100 per cent 
or from three cars to six. Even if these immigrants settled 
mainly in the three cities Mr. Andras has named-Montreal 
Toronto and Vancouver- the impact of a few thousand a 
year on a population of more than six million would hardly 
be devastating. 

Or maybe, to some people, it would be Mr Andras wants 
to find out how many find it soul-destroying to detect a 
few more black and brown faces in the crowd each year 
If he finds enough Canadians with that view, we can 
expect him to promote a restrictive policy Not absolutely 
restrictive: that would be blatantly racist But restrictive 
enough to discriminate against Africa. Asia and the 
Caribbean, while not appearing racist. 

Is that assessment unfair 9 Then why his emphasis on 
immigration from non-mdustnalized-that is. non-European- 
countries 9 Here's what he had to say The increase in 
immigrant admissions to Canada can probably be traced to 
the attractive economic conditions in Canada, in 
comparison to those in some other countries, especially 
developing countries, the restrictions on the admission of 
persons introduced by some receiving countries, and the 
favorable Canadian admission regulations for persons who 
have relatives in Canada." 

In his statement accompanying the introduction of new 


The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 

regulations on October 22, Mr Andras paid an impassioned 
tribute to the benefits of immigration "We Canadians take 
pride m the fact that we are a nation of immigrants ... Our 
nation was built by immigrants and sustained by 
immigrants Throughout Canada s history, our national spirit 
has been continually enriched by new Canadians from 
other lands " 

we will still receive about 200.000 immigrants, one of the 
highest intakes since the Second World War Some of his 
colleagues wondered why he needed the press conference 
to announce that and the shuffling in the points score 
Constraints and restraints can be applied internally in the 
department through directives which normally are not part 
of the public record. 

But the passion evidently cools when immigration from 
South Asia jumps from 2.751 to 7 620 in a six-month 
period or 4,596 settlers from Africa pour in at the same 
time Yet these, too. have much to contribute to the kind 
of society we want. The answer, of course, is a human 
society Ben Malkin, The Citizen, Ottawa. 

No Real Policy 

immigration is touchy, difficult, and confusing The proposed 
lew legislation will hopefully be more contemporary in its 
definition of undesirables than the present law. However, it 
will have almost no influence on how many immigrants we 
will admit annually, nor will it have any bearing on the 
ethnic and racial composition of the immigration flow To 
ncorporate such principles or directives in a law would, as 
he bureaucrats say, make for inflexibility." 

Thus .ve must see the exercise in producing a green 
)aper as really a smokescreen designed by officials to 
?ase the government s embarrassment that it has no real 
mmigration policy at all and isn t very sure that it wants 
)ne The embarrassment is compounded by deep splits in 
he Liberal party (including the caucus) on every significant 
ssue relating to immigration. 

Vhile Allan Gotlieb and the green paper s author. Richard 
ait. both veterans of external affairs, were sweating to 
iroduce something readable and logical enough for 
xposure. their minister, Mr. Andras. made two valiant 
ttempts to change immigration policy, once in February 
md more recently in October. His advisers convinced him 
nat Canadians were passing the stage where they would 
ccept more non-whites Accordingly, changes were framed 
"i the regulations and the directives which flow from their 
Authority, aimed mainly at curbing immigration from the 
pird world This was to be done by shuffling the scoring 
jalues in the points system" and by tightening and 
jlowing the immigration procedures. 

he other side of the political com prevented the minister 
om doing his worst Liberal backbenchers and even some 
jontbenchers, sensitive to the size and pressure of their 
Ithmc constituencies and remembering who helped them 
>rm a majority government, opposed the minister. The 
utcome was that Andras could tell the literal truth at his 
"ctober press conference, namely, that immigration policy 
ould not be based on race or country of origin. In 1974 

Next year the flow of immigrants will be at least halved, 
and the bets are that it will be the whitest immigration 
since the early 60s A miracle may happen next year A 
new law may be presented in Parliament and passed It is 
likely to be irrelevant to most would-be immigrants Why 
irrelevant? As Otto Lang once complained there is no 
effective way to control the immigration bureaucracy. 
Where immigration is concerned, study forces, qreen 
papers, white papers and even laws are more political 
gestures than anything else Immigration is mainly 
controlled in the field by jaundiced junior officials who get 
their directives from prejudiced (a nicer word would be 
realistic) senior bureaucrats. While the politicians affirm that 
immigrants from Africa and Asia and the West Indies are 
as welcome as those from Western Europe all other 
factors being equal, field operations reflect the reality. 

The offices in Western Europe are well-staffed and 
encouraged to recruit and process immigrants quickly 
Active recruitment campaigns do not exist in non-white 
countries A single immigration officer may be expected to 
process hundreds of thousands of applications annually 
His office may be located thousands of miles from the 
areas he is serving, thus ensuring that only the elite of 
would-be immigrants can afford the necessary trip 

Public expectation has been roused by Andras s press 
conferences on immigration and by the recent flurry of 
alleged leaks and counter-leaks on the green paper When 
a leak situation like this develops it is a sign that there s a 
storm up above The storm is caused by conflict between 
opposing political and bureaucratic factions The recent 
leaks look like bureaucratic initiative, not political. 

When the green paper comes and then when the draft 
immigration act reaches Parliament, opposition members 
should remember that the act will not be directly 
connected with our immigration policy as it is practised 
Instead of centring parliamentary debate on the empty 
clauses of a largely irrelevant bill they should investigate 
thoroughly the bureaucratic practices which really 
determine who can or cannot come to this country 
Douglas Fisher, Toronto Sun. 

■«e Labour Gazette -Jan 75 


Dispute-Settlement Alternatives 


The search for a less disruptive way of resolving labour- 
management disputes drew some 200 top management 
government and labour officials to Toronto on November 4 
for a one-day seminar sponsored Dy the Federation of 
Engineering and Scientific Associations 

The conference developed no consensus on alternatives to 
industrial relations conflict. But it generated a lively, 
informative and constructive dialogue on dispute-settling 
expenments-especially the final offer selection method that 
the FESA itself favours. 

Keynote speaker was Senator H. Carl Goldenberg one of 
Canada s most respected and experienced arbitrators. 

Other speakers and panelists included the senator s wife. 
Prof Shirley Goldenberg of McGill University: Tom Eberlee. 
federal Deputy Minister of Labour Stan Little, president of 
the Canadian Union of Public Employees; William Wiqhtman 
of the Canadian Manufacturers Association; Prof Charles 
Rehmus of the University of Michigan and Ed Phillips of 
the Society of Ontario Hydro Professional Engineers and 

The sessions were smoothly moderated by Val Scott, 
formerly with the Hydro Engineers and the Professional 
Institute of the Public Service and now a labour relations 
consultant based in Vancouver. 

An evening banquet following the seminar was addressed 
by David Lewis. Q.C.. leader of the New Democratic Party, 
who spoke on the social objectives of industrial relations 

Barely Beyond the Stone Age 

Senator Goldenberg in his opening speech emphasized the 
contrast between man's progress in the fields of science 
and technology and his lack of progress in the field of 
human relations. 

As human beings we haven t come very far from the 
Stone Age'' he remarked, noting that much of the progress 
in technology has been applied to devising more lethal 
weapons for killing one another He pointed out that the 
two most destructive wars in history have been fought in 
this century, despite its claim to being more civilized than 
the so-called Dark Ages." 

He drew an analogy between international relations and 
industrial relations. Just as international treaties don't 
prevent wars.'' he said, labour laws and contracts don t 
necessarily prevent work stoppages. " 

Labour-management peace, he added, depends on the 
extent to which the parties understand each other -and 
particularly on the extent to which they are willing to 
compromise. The ability to compromise must be seen not 


rhe I iboui i iazi Hi Ian 

is a sign of weakness, but of strength 

The senator cited some of the main causes of labour 
jnrest the rising expectations of workers, encouraged by 
seductive advertising and easy credit: the rapid pace of 
nflation; the growing generation gap between younger. 
>et1er educated and more militant workers and their more 
onservative elders: the fear of job displacement by new 
nachinery and technology; the monotonous and 
lehumamzing nature of so many jobs in modern plants 
ind offices. 

Until we get at these root causes of industrial conflict." he 
aid. we will accomplish nothing by trying to suppress 
Jbour unrest through legislation More restrictive laws 
rent going to put an end to rising demands and 
xpectations for a better lifestyle." 

enator Goldenberg rejected the tendency to blame 
illation on the unions wage settlements. He quoted from 
le Senate Report on Growth. Employment and Price 
tability. which exonerated unions, pointing out that they 
ave to go after income gains in public, while other 
roups are able to do much the same thing quietly-almost 
nnoticed by the public But collective bargaining is one of 
ie noisiest economic processes known to man. and this 
takes unions especially vulnerable to being designated as 
ia|or social and economic scapegoats." 

he senator reaffirmed his belief that the right to strike or 
ck out must be preserved, but cautioned that this right 
iust be exercised responsibly, especially in the public 
?ctor Otherwise it could produce a backlash of public 
anion that would force governments to enact more 
•strutive legislation 

e said that there is no cure-all for settling all industrial 
sputes without strikes, but that experiments with 
ternative dispute-settling methods should be encouraged, 
le cited third-party mediation and voluntary arbitration as 
wing proved effective in averting shutdowns and urged 
at other alternatives be tried. 

kit we must be patient and not expect immediate and 
tal elimination of conflict." he cautioned Despite all our 
I'orts labour peace is not around the corner " 

ising Expectations 

I'puty Labour Minister Eberlee also traced much of the 
:ent escalation of labour-management warfare to the 
x>d of rising expectations that has seized the entire 

Ixxir force 

'hen I came into this business in 1961." he recalled, "it 
is unthinkable for a union to aspire to a settlement with 

more than 12 or 13 cents over two years -even though it 
probably had the power to force something considerably 
larger Today, even if we did not have a rapidly rising 
Consumer Price Index, the different mood of trade union 
members -a mood shared. I am sure, by all Canadians - 
would probably be motivating them to press on for what 
was previously thought beyond reach. I suspect we ve got 
a general social problem and not just a collective 
bargaining problem here." 

The Deputy Minister also urged more experimentation with 
alternatives to confrontation. The principles of self- 
determination, he argued, are not subverted where 
affected parties self-determine to establish other kinds of 
civilized procedures that take them out of the posture of 
stomping all over each other and the public as well 

He referred to voluntary arbitration, "med-arb" and final 
offer selection as possible methods for settling disputes 
that would result in less economic hurt to the parties and 
the public 

"Why don t we try out a few of these things 9 Why aren t 
labour and management more innovative 9 Why do we 
have so few concrete results from so darn many seminars. 
Royal Commissions, task forces, re-writes of our labour 
legislation, and general nit-picking and pious sermonizing 9 
Why haven t our dispute-settlement techniques evolved 9 " 

Mr Eberlee said that, if the parties directly involved dont 
show more initiative and willingness to innovate, it will 
devolve upon government to play the catalyst role- to try 
to influence movement " He said that departments of 
labour should be dragging the parties in bringing them 
into a joint examination of problems We ve been far too 
laissez-faire: in too many cases we sit around and wait 
until the crisis is almost upon us." 

He concluded by deploring the failure of most Canadians 
to accept trade unions and collective bargaining as the 
completely legitimate institutions they actually are- as 
pillars of our socio-economic order, which they actually 
are It never ceases to amaze me how many people still 
barely tolerate collective bargaining as a new-fangled 
invention of the devil when they have no difficulty with a 
whole range of far less essential institutions In the final 
analysis, what we face is a serious understanding gap that 
will have to be bridged." 

Hostility, Distrust Rampant 

His closing remarks were echoed by CUPE President Stan 
Little, who complained that unions in Canada are still not 
accepted, and are in fact barely tolerated The ensuing 
hostility and misunderstanding of union activities and 
objectives, he said, generates a corresponding feeling of 

Labour Gazette-Jan 7J> 


■I ( mil » I >i tl ' »§*?«! 0»*i:» Ml 

I 4 4 , 1 : 

Panel, L. to R.: Mr. Eberlee. Senator Goldenberg. Shirley Goldenberg, R. Val Scott. 
(Moderator) Professor Charles Rehmus, Ed. Phillips. Stan Little. William Wightman 

distrust and antagonism within union ranks 

He upheld free collective bargaining as the ideal and 
most effective means of adjusting the unavoidably 
conflicting interests of employers and employees But he 
admitted that present methods could be improved upon, 
and their most destructive effects minimized. 

Tve had a chance to visit many countries in recent years.' 
said Mr Little "and have examined their various labour 
relations systems None of them has yet found a panacea 
that produces total permanent labour peace; but some 
have developed methods that keep conflict at considerably 
lower levels than we have been able to manage 
Unfortunately because ol the differences in social, cultural 
and economic frameworks, most of these foreign systems 
cant be transplanted to Canada 

He said that there must be an awareness of the dangers 
of clinging to present methods, especially in the public 
sector where work stoppages tend to hurt many people 
not directly involved in the disputes. 

"People on both sides of the bargaining table resist 
change." he admitted. They re reluctant to depart from [he 
old, familiar ways.'" 

He stressed the need to improve communications at all 
levels -between union leaders and members, between 
unions, management and government, and between all 
parties and the general public 

The delays built into existing bargaining procedures, 
according to Mr Little, are a major source of rank-and-file 
dissatisfaction. "Its not uncommon for a set of negotiations 
to drag on for a year.'" he said and we've even had 
situations where we were serving demands for the renewal 
ol a contract while still awaiting a settlement of the 
previous one. This is intolerable and must be corrected ." 

Like Mr Eberlee. he saw a useful role lor departments of 
labour in spearheading needed re-evaluations of labour 
relations procedures 

"It must be realized." he said, "that union leaders cant 


rhe I aboui I lazette 75 

fiord to get too tar ahead ot their members in pioneering 
hange Todays trade unionists-especially the younger 
>nes-have an innate suspicion of the establishment, and 
hat sometimes includes their own elected leaders. The 
ank and file are thoroughly imbued with the adversary 
oncept They see all management people and most 
opticians as well as their enemies: and union officers who 
iarticipate in sessions such as this one are often 
uspected of fraternizing with the enemy ' That s why 
mion leaders must be careful to maintain their credibility 
^ith their membership in any exploration of changes to the 
resent system." 

("he CMA's View 

he CMA s Bill Wightman said he shared three basic views 
wth Senator Goldenberg: (1) that labour-management 
elations are like marital relations, implying that the parties 
houldn t have to engage in open warfare to settle their 
lifferences; (2) that more restrictive laws will not provide 
n effective solution; and (3) that management is often at 
ault in failing to understand the human problems that 
nderhe most employee grievances. 

He lipp'auded Labour Minister John Munro's initiative in 
ailing fo r top-level tripartite meetings of labour, 
nanagement and government leaders This is a necessary 
irst step, he said, toward the exchange of ideas and 
iroposals that must precede changes of attitude as well as 
it method. 

Let's try to differentiate between our immediate and long- 
erm problems, said Mr. Wightman I'd like to see us 
ddress ourselves first to the development of mutually 
greed-upon criteria for resolving public interest disputes 
Ve need more research into this area, and perhaps a re- 
■valuation of the relative worth of jobs in the essential 
er vices 

"i the discussion that followed. W P Kelly. Assistant 
)eputy Minister of Labour, said that the biggest problem in 

ymg to change existing procedures was the commitment 

f both sides to the adversary system 

We managed to change attitudes to some extent, at least 
^mporanly, in some industries, he said by our use ol 
preventive mediation and industry specialists But it's a 
bugh battle to dislodge entrenched habits and beliefs. " 

le added that there is also a great tendency to 
rocrastmate on the part of both labour and management 
fficials They re reluctant to make any compromises until 
ie last possible minute- until a crisis is imminent or under 
'ay " 

Focus on FOS 

The afternoon session concentrated almost entirely on the 
Final Offer Selection technique advocated by FESA The 
keynote speaker. Ed Phillips, traced the genesis of FOS to 
the desire of professional groups to engage in a form of 
collective bargaining with their employers without having to 
exercise the right to strike. 

"The problem, he said, "was how to set up a new 
mechanism that would encourage a civilized atmosphere- 
one in which negotiation and agreement was encouraged 
and in which refusal to strike would not be regarded 
simply as weakness." 

He said FESA rejected traditional arbitration, because it. 
too. was born of the adversary approach -seldom used 
until devastation had descended on the parties Wild 
postures are used by both sides with a view to influencing 
the arbitrator " He said that FESA did not. in any case, 
favour any method that made strikes illegal The 
mechanism had to be designed to preclude the need to 

Mr Phillips said that FOS was devised simply by working 
backward from these desired results. But he stressed thai 
the technique has been greatly refined from its original 

"As originally devised, the final mechanism was simply to 
place before an arbitrator the total positions of both sides 
on issues not previously resolved The arbitrator would 
then be required to choose between the two positions on 
all aspects He was given no discretion to trade-off or to 
give some points to one side and some to another He 
was not given the right to dream up any ideas of his own 
The idea was that the mechanism was only better than 
tossing a coin in one respect the arbitrator could judge 
which side was apparently the least unreasonable 

It was intended that the arbitrator be allowed to sit in on 
the final stages of negotiations- to hear the arguments to 
frown and to smile, hoping that the parties would respond 
by modifying or withdrawing their proposals But at some 
time the clock would stop, and when it did. both sides 
were to be stuck with their position at that time ' 

Mr Phillips said that FOS has since become the name of 
"the whole process of negotiations proposed by FESA and 
other groups, and this, in my view, is wrong The term 
FOS should be reserved to describe the last step in the 

"As it has evolved." he said, the process now has seven 
phases (1) an exchange of bargaining agenda: (2) 
negotiation by the parties alone: (3) the selection of a 

">e Labour Gazette- Jan 7t 



Senator H. Carl Goldenberg 

'selection officer'. (41 mediation: (5) submission ot final 
offers: 16) further negotiations under pressure of imminent 
FOS. and (7) arbitration by FOS 

Personally. Mr Phillips said, he didn t like mediators, 
conciliators and arbitrators and felt that voluntary 
agreement reached between the parties was still the best 
method But he conceded that sometimes their services 
were necessary and unavoidable 

Each union and each company.' he said must 
individually choose the process and atmosphere they want 
If they want a good fight-so be it If they want a 
bargaining ritual-fine But if they want to confront issues, 
to come to terms and to do it with minimum costs then 
they have to give careful thought to the kind of process 
they choose The final weapon chosen to resolve disputes 
between them is only a part of the process, but it can. 
even if never used, affect the attitude of both parties in all 
the earlier steps 

"The choice appears to be among four alternatives: 
submissiveness. strike, conventional arbitration, and FOS If 
we consider which of these, by its very nature, will have 

the least harmful effect on the atmosphere and if we 
believe that genuine bargaining is the best way to confront 
issues and resolve them then it seems obvious- to me. at 
least— that FOS is simply the least undesirable ultimate 
step in the process when negotiation fails. 

FOS Must be Flexible 

Prof Rehmus. who has acted as an arbitrator under the 
FOS method in the United States, said that the value of 
the technique is still unclear But it has been incorporated 
into legislation in four states including Michigan to settle 
disputes involving public safety employees " (mainly police 
and firemen), and has worked reasonably well 

However, he favoured a more flexible version of FOS in 
which the arbitrator is free to make his choice between the 
two parties final position on an issue-by-issue basis, 
instead of having to base his award on the total package 
proposed by one party. He cited cases where FOS 
arbitrators in the US had felt obliged to re|ect a union list 
of proposals in its entirety because of one unreasonable 
demand out of many. 

Arbitration should not be a form of Russian roulette in 
which the loser dies. " he declared. He said he has refused 
to act as an FOS arbitrator when the whole package 
approach is used, but has served in several disputes 
where the flexible issue-by-issue method was employed 
This allows the arbitrator to put together a package 
settlement composed of the most reasonable proposals 
from both sides When used by sophisticated negotiators 
and adiudicators. he said, this kind of flexible FOS does 
not harm and can genuinely support the collective 
bargaining system ." He described it as a creative and 
beneficial alternative to strikes or to conventional third 
party decision-making " 

In practice according to Prof Rehmus. voluntary 
agreements are reached between the parties themselvi 
two thirds of the cases where FOS is the prescribed 
settlement method in the U S 

Right to Strike Essential 

Prof Goldenberg prefaced her remarks by affirming her 
belief in the right to strike This right cannot and should 
not be taken away, she said, particularly as it applies to 
workers in the private sector. There is no doubt in my 
mind that the right to strike has been an important factor 
in redressing the unequal power relationship that would 
otherwise exist between the individual worker and his 
employer Moreover while the threat of a strike has 
undoubtedly been used more frequently than the strike 
itself, we all know that this threat can be a significant 
catalyst in producing a negotiated agreement 


The Labour ( iazette J II 

She conceded, however, that when a work stoppage due 
to a labour dispute has damaging effects on the public it 
is incumbent on the public authority to find an acceptable 
alternative to the strike " 

She alluded to the proposed combination of mediation and 
arbitration- med-arb for short-being advocated by some 
practitioners and theorists notably by the Labour 
Department s Bill Kelly This would involve the same 
ndividual in both mediation and arbitration roles He would 
be expected to settle most ol the differences through 
■nediation. after which he would arbitrate the issues 
emaming in dispute The objective would be mediation to 
'mality- negotiation as far as possible but not as far as a 
strike The mediator would presumably be expected to 
lave more clout if the parties knew he could eventually 
mpose a settlement " 

Reservations about Med-Arb and FOS 

3 rof. Goldenberg expressed some gualms about the med- 
arb concept I am concerned, she said, about the very 
Jelicate matter of confidence that we always insist is so 
Dasic to successful mediation I wonder whether the parties 
wjld be as frank with a mediator about the concessions 
:hey are prepared to make if they knew that he would 
?ventjally be the one to arbitrate on the issues they do 
lot settle Could this not undermine his chances of 
successful mediation? " 

5he proceeded to discuss the FOS idea paying tribute to 
Ja\ Scott for being its most vocal and persistent advocate 
n Canada She said she had reservations about both the 
otal package and the item-by-item variations of FOS 

Dn the item-by-item method she said she was troubled 
)y the reguirement that each item in dispute be negotiated 
or separately and settled independently This, in my 
)pmion is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the 
)argaimng process I have always looked on collective 
)argainmg as the negotiation of a package deal through 
:ompromise or trade-off between the issues in guestion 
m afraid that the give-and-take of collective bargaining will 
>e impossible if the framework is insufficiently flexible to 
illow lor this trade-off 

she said she also saw serious problems in the winner- 
ake-all approach Don t forget that the other side is that 
he loser loses all I would hate to be a union leader 
vhose total package of proposals was rejected by the 
elector The need for face-saving is too important an 
Hemenl of human relations to be neglected in industrial 

5he also said that the choice that might sometimes face a 
ota! package selector would be distasteful, in that he 

!% f 

¥ ! ■ 




■ . JSk , ■ / 1 


T. M. Eberlee 

might have to choose between sets of proposals that were 
both unreasonable 

'The greatest advantage of FOS said Prof Goldenberg. 
may be the built-in deterrent to its use-the fear by each 
of the parties that the other s package might be selected 
This may be likened to a nuclear deterrent bargain in 
good faith and settle, or a worse fate mav be around Ihe 

She said that the formula now being advam ed by I ( SA 
goes a considerable way toward overcoming her objections. 
and referred favourably to a recent re< .mimendation for 
FOS contained in a report by the Manitoba Labour- 
Management Review Committee on Public Sector 
Employer Employee Relations 

"The committee is headed by Prof H D Woods, a close 
colleague of mine at McGill. and one of the most 
respected authorities on industrial relations in Canada After 
considering various mechanisms currently in use for 
settling disputes in the public sectoi. the Manitoba 
committee concluded that a weakness in these systems is 
that, particularly in small units such as fire departments. 

he Labour Gazette -Jan 7', 


the employer side may insulate itself from the responsibility 
of bargaining by waiting for the union to agree to 
arbitration ." 

The Manitoba committee has therefore recommended that, 
if an impasse is reached, either side could have the right 
to impose final offer arbitration After assessing the pros 
and cons of FOS. the committee concluded that its very 
nature tends to prevent its use. and to produce settlement 
through bargaining and short of final offer arbitration 
Taking into account all of the circumstances of public 
sector industrial relations, it seems the best solution 

In the discussion that followed, however, most delegates 
remained skeptical about FOS Bill Kelly pointed out that 
its use in the United States has been confined to police, 
firemen, and some professional organizations-groups that 
have never enjoyed or sought the right to strike Tom 
Eberlee noted that FOS could never be a creative or 
innovative process, since arbitrators could take no 
initiatives and would be limited by the parties' own offers 
and counter-offers. Stan Little doubted if groups such as 
the Ontario hospital workers, who won an increase of 
$1.14 an hour earlier in the year by threatening a strike, 
could be persuaded they would do as well under the FOS 

However, Val Scott. Ed Phillips, and FESA President Ian 
Wilson all stoutly defended FOS and insisted that it would, 
by its deterrent value, produce a high rate of negotiated 

Delegate Ed Finn of the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway. 
Transport and General Workers said that the debate over 
FOS would not be resolved until the concept was put to 
the test in Canada 

"I don t see much likelihood of unions that now have the 
right to strike exchanging it for the uncertainties of FOS. 
he said. But it may certainly appeal to professional 
groups, and to some groups of essential service employees 
who are now denied the legal right to strike In other 
words, if you II pardon the horrible pun. FOS may not be 
feasible, but it may be FESA-ble. 

There are indications that experiments with FOS will soon 
be undertaken The Toronto Star and The Globe and Mail 
are seriously considering this system for their next round 
of bargaining with the printing trade unions The Woods 
Committee's support for FOS in Manitoba may lead to its 
adoption in the public sector in that province The Society 
of Ontario Hydro Professional Engineers and Associates 
has asked Ontario Hydro to agree to FOS in its next 
negotiations with the 1.800 Hydro engineers 

When the conference adjourned, the delegates agreed that, 
although they had reached no consensus on devising a 
better way'' of settling labour-management disputes in the 
public sector, they had engaged in a very useful dialogue, 
had exchanged ideas and arguments, had heard several 
lucid and well-informed speakers, and were perhaps more 
flexible and open to change than they had been previously 
And that in itself, they felt, made the conference worthwhile 


The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 



iflation held the top priority spot on the agenda of the 
)ntano Federation of Labour s 18th annual convention. 
ield at Niagara Falls, Ont .. October 28-30 Along with their 
jngthy consideration of economic matters, however, the 
.223 delegates found time to deal with subjects ranging 
om labour legislation to the misuse of alcohol. 

although discussions were brisk, there was little basic 
lisagreement The administration s firm control was clearly 
vident m the re-election of David Archer as president. He 
leteated Sam Sharpe. a young member of the Oil. 
;hemical and Atomic Workers Union by a margin of 814 
3 248 votes Terry Meagher was unanimously returned as 
ecretary-treasurer. the Federation s second position 

)espite concern about the multitude of problems facing 
xlay s labour movement, there was a spirit of optimism, 
articularly with regard to numerical strength. The OFL 
'lamed 12.695 new members during the past year, bringing 
ie total membership to well over 700.000 Expectations 
re that another 100.000 will affiliate during the next 12 

he major part of this potential is in the 75.000 members 
f the Ontario Civil Service Association Officers of the 
;SAO attending the convention as observers received a 

rousing welcome and assurance of the Federations 
support in their efforts to gain effective bargaining rights 

Archer saw this interest in union organization among public 
employees as the beginning of a trend among groups that 
have been trying to go it alone." He reported widespread 
interest in unions, noting that organizers were experiencing 
extraordinary demands for their services. 


The inflation debate covered a wide field Although 
delegates expressed adamant determination to tal-c 
whatever action was necessary to protect the interests of 
union members, there was also evidence of a readiness to 
co-operate in any effort likely to alleviate inflationary 
pressures Archer maintained that, although international 
conditions were an important factor. 50 per cent of 
Canada s inflationary problems could be controlled within 
Canada He proposed a Royal Commission to investigate 
food prices 

The convention adopted a comprehensive position paper 
that reviewed the situation and suggested various courses 
of action Blame for high prices was directed toward 
profits, rather than wages. There were complaints that, 
while workers real earnings were slipping behind, 
supermarkets, meat packers, grain dealers and land 

he Labour Gazelle- Jan 75 


David Archer 

Centre: Joseph Morris. President. Canadian Labour 

speculators were reaping a rich harvest Although the 
paper gave support to demands tor contracl adjustments 
including cost of living clauses it was accompanied by the 
warning that this alone was not likely to solve Canada's 
prevailing difficulties Archer predicted that 1975 would be 
"a year ot controntation 

The Federations anti-inflation program called tor 

-Revision ol social benefit programs to protect those on 
fixed incomes. 

-Reduction of taxes for lower income groups 

-Reappraisal of priorities in the promotion of new 
industries in an effort to create more jobs 

-Expanded processing of raw materials in Canada and 
tighter control of foreign companies operating in Canada 

-Direction of public and private investment to industries 
with export possibilities, and expansion of Canadian 
secondary industry to reduce imports 

-Compilation of an inventory of basic commodities and 
adoption of a two-price system to protect Canadian 

-Public disclosure of the affairs of basic industries 

Joe Morris president of the Canadian Labour Congiess. 
painted a gloomy picture of the international economic 
situation- the worst since the 1930s " There was he said. 
a danger that counter-inflationary measures might lead to 
still higher unemployment, and Canadians were especially 

Monetary reform revision of trade arrangements and 
effective international co-operation to control multinational 
corporations were all needed: but Morris saw little 
likelihood of their early implementation In these 
circumstances, organized labour was left with no alternative 
to seeking more money through contract improvement . If 
inflation goes unchecked, it will tear the social fabric of this 
country asunder as guickly and as surely as any political 
revolution. " he warned 

Farm Workers 

Put the delegates were by no means completely absorbed 
in their own affairs. Special attention was paid the plight of 
low-paid farm workers, a subject in which the Ontario 
Federation of Labour has shown particular interest through 
a special study- Harvest of Concern. The lot of farm 
workers was termed a national tragedy " and various steps 
were proposed to effect improvements 

Government agricultural policies should be designed to 
arrest the abandonment of farms provide the farmei with a 
lust return for his labours, and recognize the rights and 
needs of farm workers.' the statement said Specifically 
farm employees should be brought under the Labour 
Relations and Employment Standards acts, so that their 
right to organize would be fully protected.> 
housing, medical care and recreational facilities should be 

Renewed support for California grape and lettuce workers 
was pledged following an address by Richard Chavez a 


rhe Labo Ga Iti 

vice-president of the United Farm Workers The Federation 
also gave assurances of continued support to the Ontario 
Anti-Poverty Association 

Alcohol and Drug Abuse 

Through sponsorship of a special seminar and assistance 
to Toronto s Lifeline program the Federation has been 
showing increased concern over the misuse of alcohol and 
drugs The convention adopted a resolution calling for 
legislation to reguire health warnings to be placed on all 
containers of alcoholic beverages 

The Housing Crisis 

After discussing Ontario s housing crisis " at length, the 
convention endorsed a program that proposed: 

-Launching of a massive housing program 

-Large-scale land banking, with the land leased for low- 
ncome housing projects. 

-Lowering of interest rates. 

-Restriction of municipal taxation to services 

-Removal of the 1 1 per cent federal sales tax on building 

Revision of the Landlords' and Tenants Act to provide 
greater security of tenure and improved methods of dealing 
with disputes 

Establishment of a Rent Review Board. 

Ontario's Labour Act 

The Ontario Government was sharply < riti< i/ed for its 
antiguated Labour Act.' Delegates complained that Ontario 
/vas the last important labour jurisdiction in the country to 
deny union security in the form of the checkoff, as part of 
jnion certification The convention adopted a 
:omprehensive resolution, which sought extension of the 
*Vct to classes now excluded, automatic certification on the 
Dasis of 50 per cent membership tighter restrictions on 
nanagement intervention, automatic right to strike at the 
2nd of a contract, and during a contract on matters not 
covered by the agreement; outlawing of the use of 
strikebreakers: clarification of the right to picket and 
lemonstrate: encouragement of industry-wide bargaining 
and introduction of a government service providing material 
jseful in negotiations 

Dealing with another aspect of labour legislation, the 
telegates called for major amendments in employment 
standards, including a minimum wage of $3 50. indexed to 
legotiated wage trends: extension of coverage of 

employment standards regulations, voluntary overtime nine 
statutory holidays: severance pay based on 2 per cent of 
annual earnings: and a clearly-defined procedure for mass 
layoffs or shutdowns On the mattei of work lime, the 
convention resolutions committee was supported by the 
delegates in the belief that it was impossible to establish a 
generally acceptable fixed work week The convention 
favoured instead the investigation of various ways to 
reduce work time The resolution warned against pitfalls 
insisting that any rescheduling should not exceed an 
8-hour day and should be subject to negotiation. 

Job Safety 

The delegates were emphatic in calling for greater attention 
to matters of job safety There were demands for a 
vigorous tightening of regulations and the protection of 
employees, including acceptance of the principle that an 
employee had the right, without penalty to refuse to work 
under hazardous conditions 

Other Concerns 

Other resolutions were directed to improving the lot of 
both young and old Expansion of educational facilities was 
urged through the funding of students at the post- 
secondary level There were also proposals for the 
establishment of a provincial Youth Ministry and assistance 
in the preparation and publishing of other teaching aids 
Affiliated unions were urged to set up pre-retirement 
programs and counselling services for prospective retirees 

The likelihood of an early Ontario election resulted in 
considerable attention being directed to politics Time and 
again, delegates maintained that conditions could only be 
bettered by the election of a government more sympatlictn 
to the needs of working people 

Some 650 of the delegates turned out for a pre-convention 
political rally at which Stephen Lewis. Ontario NDP leader 
attacked the province's labour legislation and the Ontario 
government's collective bargaining polk ies Later the 
convention gave almost unanimous support to a resolution 
re-affirming support for the New Demoi ratii Party and 
urging increased financial and organizational support Some 
delegates complained that union people were not energetic 
enough in actively backing their professed support for the 

Vice-presidents elected for the ensuing year were 

G. Wilson. Auto Workers: H.Buchanan. Retail-Wholesale 

C Clark. Textile: R Brixhe. Lumber and Sawmill. J Donnelly 

Sheet Metal. K Rogers. Chemical. S.Dobbin. CUPE: 

N Paxton. Postal. G Pattisan. IUE: P Carberry. PSAC: 

S Cooke Steel A Hershkovitz. Food: H Thayer. Machinists; 

and W Punnett. Rubber. 

Gazette-Jan 7h 


Saskatchewan Federation of Labour 


Solidarity was one of the key themes of the Saskatchewan 
Federation of Labour during its 19th annual convention, 
held October 1 7 to 1 9 in Regina Delegates approved 
several resolutions calling for worker solidarity, and they 
voted to seat representatives of the Retail Wholesale and 
Department Store Union (RWDSU) over the objections of 
the Canadian Labour Congress 

The RWDSU based only in Saskatchewan was expelled 
from the CLC n 1970 after it left its parent international 
Since then it has tried to join the CLC but the Congress 
has refused admission, saying the union must either return 
to the international union or affiliate with the Canadian 
Food and Allied Workers (CFAW) 

The Saskatchewan Federation of Labour executive voted in 
1974 to allow the RWDSU to affiliate with the federation 
and it attended the convention under the umbrella of the 
CFAW When the union representatives took their seats at 
the convention. CLC Vice-President Julien Maior left the 
convention, saying the seating of the union violated the 
congress constitution The constitution allows only 
organizations chartered by. of affiliated to. the Congress to 
belong to provincial federations. 

Major was guoted in The Regma Leader-Post as saying he 
could not condone the RWDSU delegates by his presence 
at the convention, and officially, no CLC member would 
participate in the meeting. In rebuttal, outgoing federation 

president Ross Hale, asserted that the RWDSU delegates 
would be accepted without reservation and that the CLC 
stand was unacceptable. According to the Regina 
newspaper. Hale stated that even if the CLC declared the 
federation s convention null and void this would have no 
effect on resolutions passed by the delegates. 

The seating of the union delegates appears to give support 
for the Solidarity 75 statement of the federation's 
executive council, said Hale The statement calls for the 
federation members to stand together and. with others 
outside the union movement, to protect and advance in the 
Legislature gains made at the bargaining table It calls on 
the Federation to assist unions during bargaining and in 
the case of a strike or lockout, and asks the Fedeiation to 
support legitimate organizations fighting to better the 
position of Saskatchewan residents 

Resolutions passed by the delegates stress the need to 
unionize unorganized workers and encourage women to 
take a more active role in union administration Delegates 
called for automatic certification in cases where employers 
do not adhere to the Trade Union Act during organization 
drives or in cases where a union signs up 50 per cent 
plus one of a workforce. 

George Semeniuk of Saskatoon was acclaimed federation 
president, replacing Ross Hale who was moving out of the 
province T.S.W. 


The Labour Gazette Jan 75 

Newfoundland Federation of Labour 


\ new Newfoundland labour standards code and a new 
abour relations act are being drafted and should be ready 
or the next session of the provincial House of Assembly. 
Drxwmcial premier Frank Moores told the Newfoundland 
ederation of Labour. 

iVddressing delegates attending the federation s 38th annual 
invention, held October 21 to 23 at Grand Falls. Premier 
vloores said the proposed labour standards code will 
BStablish a labour standards board to replace the existing 
Minimum Wage Board and to perform expanded duties. 
The new code would contain a provision for paid statutory 
Tolidays for all employees, as well as a standard workweek 
Df not more than 48 hours, and would prohibit work 
oeyond 60 hours a week without a permit The code 
would also deal with maternity leave and the employment 
af children 

More than 90 recommendations of the Cohen Royal 
Commission on Labour Legislation are being considered for 
the new labour relations act, stated Moores In addition, the 
Trade Union Act will be presented in revised form to the 
legislature, and changes in the Human Rights Code will be 
aroposed The Premier also indicated that members of the 
Mewfoundland Constabulary-which polices St Johns-may 
be allowed to form a trade union The policemen are 
currently organized into a brotherhood, but under the 
Drovincial Police Act. they are forbidden to affiliate with the 
federation of Labour or with the Canadian Labour 

Art Kelly, re-elected president of the federation by 
acclamation, told the convention that the body will strive to 
extend the right to strike to provincial employees 
designated essential Such personnel are not free people 
without that right, he said, and if the theme of next year s 
operations must be "free the essentials' then it will be so. 

He criticized the Newfoundland minimum wage, saying that 
although the province has enjoyed the biggest minimum 
wage increase of any province in recent years, other 
provinces see the wage as the minimum workers are to 
receive, whereas in Newfoundland, it becomes the 
maximum wage for unorganized workers 

Convention delegates approved many resolutions, including 
demands for the nationalization of the province s telephone 
system; the repeal of the Public Services Collective 
Bargaining Act; government changes to the Labour 
Relations Act; and the enactment of legislation requiring 
that arbitration decisions be submitted to the parties 
involved not more than 30 days after the hearings adjourn 
They also urged legislation be enacted guaranteeing retail 
workers two consecutive days of rest, one of them Sunday; 
and that the federation take remedial steps to deal with 
the problem concerning a recent court ruling that a trade 
union can't prosecute an employer on behalf of an 
individual union member The delegates defeated a 
resolution that Labour Day be moved to sometime in June 
or July from the first Monday in September. 


tie Labour Gazette-Jan 75 


B.C. Federation of Labour 


The provincial Government of British Columbia and the 
province s Labour Relations Board came in (or heavy 
criticism when the British Columbia Federation of Labour 
held its 19th annual convention November 4 to 8 in 

Federation president George Johnston told delegates that 
governments have not listened to labour, and suggested 
that if they had adopted some of the proposals made in 
past conventions, they would probably have fewer problems 
now Labour has advocated such things as a maior 
housing program, low interest rates, curbs on land 
speculation, and a practical immigration policy In 
Johnston s view, the steps recently taken by the federal 
Government in some of these areas are too little too 
late " 

The Labour Relations Board has been the greatest area of 
failure in the government s labour code, contended the 
federation s Executive Council In its convention report, the 
Council said that although the decisions of the current 
Board have been slightly better than the previous Board, 
they have not been indicative of the kind of new approach 
necessary to encourage and assist in unionizing the 
unorganized workers, the expressed philosophy of the 
Government and the Minister of Labour." 

Board chairman Dr Paul Weiler was also criticized 
because, the Executive Council stated, a number of his 
decisions were based in too legalistic a fashion on 
interpretations and precedents established previously in 
B.C. or in other provinces." 

The executive council report criticized the provincial 
Government for failing to bring fishermen under the labour 
code: forcing suburban Vancouver firemen into a joint 
council with city firemen; and refusing to remove a strike 
ban during the appointment of a mediator and failing to 
pay salaries that would attract top-flight mediators. 

Provincial Labour Minister Bill King addressed the 
convention and said right-wing parties would do anything 
to seize power and tamper with the right to strike ." His 
government, he said stands alone between labour's right 

to free collective bargaining and these parties There is an 
obligation to demonstrate that this is the best system, even 
with all its problems Like democracy, it is clumsy as hell, 
but it is the best system." 

Later in the convention, delegates approved a legislative 
committee report recommendmg-but without singling out 
individuals-the ousting and shuffling of some provincial 
Cabinet ministers The report criticized the Government for 
delaying proclamation of the new Human Rights Code, 
passed by the Legislature in 1972. 

"British Columbians are still having to rely on the old 
Socred Human Rights Act to protect them from 
discrimination Not only has the Government delayed 
unjustifiably in proclaiming the legislation, but the budget 
allotted the Human Rights Branch for enforcement is 
hopelessly low." stated the report 

The B.C. Department of Labour was also censured 
because "when the minimum laws regarding human rights, 
wages, working conditions, health and safety are not 
enforced, unorganized workers have nothing Legislative 
gains achieved by the labour movement are rendered 
hollow and ineffective by half-hearted and selective 

Kathleen Ruff. Director of the Human Rights Act. told 
delegates the majority of the public react to human rights 
with silence "occasionally broken by a guffaw of ridirule." 
The greatest form of contempt is ridicule and a belittling 
denial of humanity, she said, giving as an example of 
ridicule the reaction to women's efforts for human rights. 

Ruff called on the union movement to give strong practical 
support to human rights programs, saying that everyone is 
in favour of human rights, but actions speak louder than 

The convention approved several resolutions regarding 
women's rights, but failed to reach agreement on one 
calling for a provincial ministry for women. This resolution 
was referred for further study. 



The Labour Gazelle-Jan 75 



luch soul-searching and debate has been centred lately 
n the current status ot collective bargaining When 
lanagement. union, and government officials meet in 
onference or discussion, one of the questions asked time 
nd time again is; Collective Bargaining-Is It Working'' 

arly in November, a union-management conference was 
eld in Owen Sound Ontario, to analyze this problem. The 
onference was sponsored by the Union-Management 
ervices Branch of the Canada Department of Labour and 
ie Owen Sound Campus of the Georgian College of 
pplied Arts and Technology More than 1 00 union 
lembers and company administrators attended the 
onference to argue the merits of collective bargaining, and 
) hear the views of the keynote speaker, Dr Chris 
ecchmis Chairman of the Economics Department of 
akehead University. Thunder Bay. Ontario. 

o match the conference s four sub-themes- the changing 
'Ork ethics impact on collective bargaining; human factors 
i the workplace; new concepts in collective bargaining. 
nd union-management responsibility toward each other 
nd the community- Jecchinis divided his address into four 

Changing Work Ethic 

Speaking on the first sub-theme, he observed that we are 
in the midst of a crisis regarding industrial conflict and 
poor productivity. During the last decade Canada s man- 
hour output rose by 50 per cent and that of the United 
States increased 34.7 per cent. But the output of France 
rose 75 per cent during the same period. Sweden s 
increased 100 per cent, and Japans went up 188 5 per 

Young workers are the scapegoats for conflict and reduced 
productivity, tie noted, they have been accused of 
contributing more than their share to staff turnover, 
absenteeism, slowdowns and stoppages It is true that 
young workers are more educated and have higher 
expectations than their older counterparts, but in an era of 
revolutionary and all-pervasive change, all workers attitudes 
have changed Where the workers seem to differ is only in 
the area of priorities In a society such as ours, where 
motivations have shifted toward consumption values, the 
young are no more spoiled or selfish than we are The 
young workers' aspirations may differ from those of their 
parents when they were the same age. but that does not 
make the youth responsible for all the workforce problems 
that exist today." 

he Labour Ga/ette-Jan 75 



The greater sophistication and expectations of todays 
youth cause them to demand more from work and living, 
said Jecchmis In their quest for fulfillment, they become 
impatient with authon- tanan and old-fashioned 
management; this, in turn, makes them unco-operative ano 

They may be concerned with social justice, fulfilling work, 
and participation in the decision-making process But in 
other respects, they do not diffei from their elders in the 
desire for security and better working and living 
conditions " 

In recent years, said Jecchmis there has been an invasion 
of |ob enrichment proponents They advise management to 
adopt new motivational theories or implement new 

techniques designed to impiove or enrich jobs, which will 
in turn increase worker satisfaction and worker productivity 

But in the view of Leonard Sayles. a Columbia University 
business professor, job enrichment is an amalgam of 
ideas, concepts and beliefs, and as such, is neither 
provable in any social science sense nor implementable 
from a management point of view According to Sayles 
"job enrichment is |ust another of a long line of examples 
of naive management looking for panaceas and ideas to 
solve their personal problems Productivity, for the most 
part, is not really a work motivation problem 

If Sayles is right, observed Jecchmis then there are other 
factors contributing to worker satisfaction or dissatisfaction. 
in< luding job security, improved working conditions and 
high earnings That the role of collective bargaining is 
satisfying these needs cannot be in doubt tie maintained, 
although there is also no doubt that new needs and 
changing conditions call for corresponding changes and 
improvements in the system. 

The question is not whether collective bargaining will 
survive as an institution, concluded Jecchmis. but rather, 
what kind of bargaining is needed to help solve some of 
the problems created by changes in technology and the 
work ethic, which are adversely affecting industrial peace 
and productivity 

Workers' Rights 

Human factors m the workplace, the second topic of 
discussion, is inter-related with the changing work ethic, 
said Jecchmis It deals with the right of workers to be 
treated as human beings, and the pressures in society 
arising from basic incompatibilities between social and 
technological change. 

A major concern of current industrialized society, according 
to Jecchmis. is the problem of increasing productivity and 
sustaining high growth rates without creating acute social 
and environmental crisis or destroying workers spirits 
Automation has contributed to increased output But it has 
also created the problem of reconciling the interests of 
management with those of laboui in the application of 
technological change, in addition to using technological 
advance for well-balanced economic expansion and social 

Trade unions have come to accept the fact that 
technological advances are here to stay However, they 
want to ensure that such changes will not dehumanize the 
workers, or prevent the workers from sharing in additional 
profits realized through increased output made possible by 


fh( i ii mi I iazetie Jan 75 

Worker (ear and insecurity over the future of their jobs has 
created considerable discontent and friction, declared 
Jecchmis Unions express fear over the abuse or 
uncontrolled use of technological change, or the 
introduction of automation without adequate warning or 
planning In his view, it is technological unemployment 
which unions resist vigorously unless they have secured a 
settlement concerning redeployment prior to the 
introduction of the change: in cases of this kind, unions 
tend to confront rather than co-operate 

Although in a few instances negotiations between unions 
and management have resulted in the smooth application 
of technological change, technological change has caused 
a crisis in Canadian and American collective bargaining 
Not only does automation tend to lower union membership, 
but it accentuates the incapacity of conventional collective 
bargaining to deal effectively with it and other socio- 
economic and psychological problems 

'The up-to-date record of labour-management agreements 
concerning automation indicates that conventional collective 
bargaining has had only limited success in solving or 
cushioning the problems of unemployment and 
disemployment caused by technological change." said 
Jecchmis In Canada, contrary to the public impression that 
tho r e is an overwhelming union-management response to 
technoloqical change, it appears that only 28 percent- 133 
agreements out of a total of 471 surveyed (in 1 967) - 
contained specific clauses on technological change One 
wonders, however whether it is the lack of response on 
behalf of labour and or management or the unsuitability of 
conventional collective bargaining which is responsible for 
this poor record I believe that it is the former as well as 
the latter Management is still fighting a rear guard action 
against what it considers to be an infringement campaign 
against its established prerogatives As well, because both 
labour and management are locked in an industrial 
relations system which imposes constraints on any 
effective action aimed at the establi ihment of more 
advanced forms of industrial democrai , 

"Some efforts have been made to complement 
conventional collective bargaining concerning technological 
change with joint consultation but permanent labour- 
management committees to cope with such problems are 
small in number and they have no legal status In fa< t 
joint consultation in Canada is still carried out on an ad 
hoc and experimental basis-and no real progress has 
been made toward industrial democracy in which joint 
consultation would be institutionalized and advanced to 
other forms of employees' participation in the decision- 
making process." 

New Concepts 

Turning to new concepts in collective bargaining. Jecchmis 

said he believes that problems associated with the 
previous two themes cannot be solved through 
conventional collective bargaining Solutions to issues such 
as the introduction of new production methods, technolo- 
gical change displacement, manpower planning and 
training, job satisfaction and absenteeism require periodic, if 
not constant, consultation between labour and 
management This consultation cannot be provided in 
conventional contract negotiations or restricted grievance 
procedures North American contracts cover many issues, 
including fringe benefits, but in Europe, for example fringe 
benefits are provided through legislation and appropriate 
social institutions. 

Industrial democracy in Europe has gone further afield than 
any enriched form of collective bargaining suggested 
Jecchmis Professor John Crispo of the University of 
Toronto has summarized the various forms of European 
industrial democracy by saying that beyond collective 
bargaining itself, there are essentially three degrees of 
worker participation in management. There is consultation, 
which at a minimum implies an obligation on the part of 
management to consult with its workers or their 
representatives before taking any final da isions in areas 
where it is bound, has agreed, or feels morally committed 
to this process Second there is co-management or co- 
determination. which implies co-decision-making over a 
broad range of activities. Finally there is worker control. 
which entails the total transformation of an enterprise from 
privately-owned profit- making operations to co-operative 
kinds of undertaking 

The latter form of democratization through worker control 
is perhaps unrealistic, if not undesirable for Canada. " 
Jecchmis said but neither of the other forms is either 
unrealistic or undesirable. We cannot expect to find 
solutions to pressing industrial problems if we continue to 
wear blinkers and insist that a bit of conflict confrontation 
and unemployment doesn't really hurt the economy as a 
whole " 

There is mixed opinion regarding the degree ot sue ess of 
European industrial democracy but there is no 
disagreement regarding the importam e and the value of 
the com ept itsell he continued Opponents to joint 
consultation cite the failure of the systi m in Britain l ul 
they fail to mention its success in Austria Switzerland. 
Scandanavia. and other countries all ot wlm h ire 
experiencing a comparatively low rale of conflict and a 
high rate of productivity "There is no doubt in my mind 
that all these countries are doing something right while we 
are doing something wrong." he noted 

"I believe that there are two major reasons tor the slow 
progress made in Canada toward a more advanced form of 
industrial democracy. "Jecchmis said The first is that in 

ibour Ga? 75 


the existing state of constant confrontation, the two parties 
are either unwilling or unprepared or both to move into 
unconventional fields of activity Secondly, their established 
beliefs have produced rigid attitudes and not very 
imaginative policies Thus labour-management relations 
have geared more and more to confrontation than to co- 
operation, even in areas of mutual concern 

It seems to me that in spite of the changing social values 
and the ensuing pressures, management in North America 
as a whole is still very reluctant to take heed of the 
wishes of the workforce perhaps because it fears that any 
compromise over participation will result in the erosion of 
traditional management prerogatives Some of these fears 
may be justified, but all interested parties must have 
realized by now that it is no longer just the share of the 
cake that is bargained over buy its ingredients and the 
way it is produced ." 

Unions also have their own internal problems to solve, as 
a large portion of the rank and file are dissatisfied and 
impatient with conservative trade unionism which 
concentrates only on winning limited gains through 
traditional bargaining methods Contrary to popular belief, 
he observed blue and white-collar workers in Canada are 
more interested in industrial democracy than has been 
admitted so far by either management or their leaders 

"There are also a growing number of personnel managers 
academics, and government officials who are beginning to 
question the effectiveness of existing relations and 
institutions, and to agitate for improvements. Jecchmis 
declared I believe that the increasing pressures of 
problems on the one hand, and the change in social 
values on the other, will eventually force the Government 
to establish through legislation new and more effective 
institutional arrangements 

Joint consultation and other forms of industrial democracy 
will not solve all labour problems overnight, but they are 
the first step in the right direction, suggested Jecchmis 
There will always be conflict of some kind. But that does 
not mean it cannot be minimized History has taught us 
coming change can be delayed but it cannot be stopped 
Management should have been convinced by now that it 
cannot solve 20th century problems with 19th century 

In a democratic society, the success of any social 
legislation or even bilateral agreement, depends on the co- 
operation of those who will be more directly affected I , il 
It is imperative therefore, that both labour and management 
become aware of their rights as well as their 
responsibilities toward each other, and through the 
government, toward society as a whole.' 


The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 

Preventive Medicine 



The Health Hazard Appraisal (HHA) is an experimental 
census currently being initiated by the Department of 
National Health and Welfare. Health Protection Branch. Dr. 
R. Pellerm, Director of the National Capital Zone and its 
Public Service Health Medical Centre, is enthusiastic about 
the HHA. |Since this article was written, Dr. Pellerin has 
gone on leave of absence from the Department, and Dr. J 
Mercier is acting Zone director! 

The Appraisal aims to assess the interaction of a variety of 
everyday risks which people assume, or to which they are 
exposed, and which can affect the quality and the quantity 
of life. From the data on the Appraisal form, an 
individualized prevention program can be prepared. 

The Appraisal forms, available from Public Service Health 
Units throughout the National Capital Zone, are a type of 
questionnaire listing the individual's life style factors 
(smoking, drinking, exercising and driving practices); 
physical status (blood pressure, weight, blood cholesterol); 
presence in or absence from a high risk group because of 
recent screening (such as for certain types of cancer); and 
personal or family history of certain diseases. 

Once completed, the forms are coded to ensure 
confidentiality, and then processed through the Health 

Protection Branch, which issues an individualized print-out. 
The print-out includes an analysis of risk data on the 
individual, comparing his particular case history to the 
probability tables of causes of death for his age group 
The print-out includes his given (or actual) age. appraised 
age (that is. age according to present physical condition), 
and compliance age. The latter is the "age'' that might be 
attained if certain suggestions, also included on the print- 
out, are complied with. Suggested might be: "lose weight, 
quit smoking, exercise more, etc.'' to improve the 
individual's general physical condition. 

The print-out also includes details of the major causes of 
death for each age group, and the individual s risk potential 
for each possible cause. 

As an example. Mr Moderate, age 45. is rated against the 
national average, and is found to have an appraised age of 
41.1 years. A non-smoker, who only drinks moderately, if 
he changes his life style from taking only moderate 
exercise to a regular exercise program, in one year his 
compliance age should be 40.8 years The 12 most 
frequent causes of death for males aged 45 are checked 
against his history and the results of his medical 
examination and questionnaire answers, and he is found to 
have a less than average chance of dying as a result of 
the major causes for his age group. He is also urged on 
the print-out to ensure he has an annual medical check- up. 

The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 


In another example, Mr. Indulgent, also aged 45. is a 
sedentary, smoking, overweight, drinking individual As a 
result his appraised age is given as 53.2. However, by 
changing his life style as suggested on the print-out. he 
can reduce his compliance age to 42.7. Suggested is a 14 
per cent weight reduction, a sedentary exercise program, 
no smoking, reduction of alcohol consumption, use of a 
seat belt when driving, and an annual medical check-up. 
By complying with the suggestions, he would significantly 
reduce his risk of death from the major causes for his age 

The whole point behind this experimental appraisal is to 
promote preventive medicine— something overworked 
personal physicians and hospitals just don't have time for 
The Occupational Health Service does not try to replace 
the personal physician or the hospital, but provides health 
services to federal public servants, a consultative service, 
and a health prevention and safety service. 

Dr. Pellerin points out that by improving the health and 
welfare of an individual, his working abilities and general 
well-being are improved. The Health Hazard Appraisal is an 
excellent opportunity to pinpoint the danger areas for the 
individual, and set up a program for improvement and 
eventual elimination of problem areas. 

The information on the form will remain confidential. 
Coding for identification wi!' ensure this. 

In early April. 1974, 1,500 questionnaires were circulated in 
the Ottawa-Hull area and the Centre aims to have 5,000 
completed in 1974. While still in the experimental stage, 
the Appraisal is only being tested in the National Capital 
Zone area. Those completing the Appraisal forms will be 
recalled in a year to reassess the results of the test and 
to discover if the suggestions have been implemented, and 
what improvement there has been. In some cases, as 
when weight reduction has been suggested, the individual 
will be recalled every two or three months to check on 
and encourage continuation of his suggested program. 

The Health Hazard Appraisal is still an experimental 
project, and its value will not be assessed until 
reappraisals are made. It will be valuable only if it helps a 
significant number of people to change as necessary in the 
areas they can change- particularly life style factors Dr. 
Pellerin feels it may be particularly helpful where people 
have unknowingly slipped into hazardous life styles. 

Based on concepts and risk factors developed by Dr 
Lewis Robbins and others at the methodist Hospital of 
Indiana in Indianapolis. Health Hazard Appraisal was 
introduced in Canada about two years ago by Dr. Harold 
N Colburn and colleagues of the Non-Medical Use of 
Drugs Directorate, National Health and Welfare. They 

incorporated Canadian mortality data and adapted the 
originally manual system to computer Health Hazard 
Appraisal is being utilized by about thirty private physicians 
across Canada and some occupational health groups 
Doctors and nurses from the practices forward the coded 
Risk Registries (the data sheet containing the patient s 
relevant information) to Ottawa for computer processing 
The results, in the form of a two-page computer print-out. 
are mailed to the physician or nurse in a few days. 
Participating physicians and nurses are showing the results 
to the patients to motivate them to change potentially 
harmful life styles and to obtain the treatment and periodic 
disease screening examinations suggested in the print-out. 

The Health Hazard Appraisal print-out provides not only a 
good counselling aid for the physicians and nurses, but 
also a factual survey of the patient's risks in terms of 
relevant precursors for specific health problems. As a 
"recipe for health'' it allows the health worker to help the 
patient set goals for health in order of priority Lynn Craig. 
Health Hazard Appraisal Counsellor with the Non-Medical 
Use of Drugs Directorate, states: "A visible prescription for 
health, specially tailored to the individuals needs, strikes 
home for many people when generalized admonitions to 
change behaviour have no personal relevance.'' 

The key word in modern preventive medicine is 
motivation-the individual's desire to take measures to 
protect his or her own health and avoid or eliminate abuse 
of the body. The Health Hazard Appraisal aims to provide 
that motivation by alerting the individual to danger areas 
and by making suggestions for improvement through 

We are all interested in staying young, at least in body and 
in mind. By completing the Health Hazard Appraisal 
questionnaire and discovering the results, you will have an 
idea of your statistical "age" and of how you can change 
your life style to ensure a long "young" life. 

(The preceding article is reprinted from the PSAC Argus 
Journal, September 1974.) 


The Labour Gazelle-Jan 75 

e election of William Green as 
>sident of the American Federation 
Labor, prohibition of the public 
pearance of children under 10 years 
age as performers in theatres and 
ler places of entertainment in 
mitoba growth of community 
aries throughout the rural areas of 
nada and the legal status of 
men in Canada were among topics 
cussed in the January 1925 issue 
i The Labour Gazette. 

illiam Green Elected 
, r L President 

lliam Green, secretary-treasurer of 
! United Mine Workers of America, 
s elected president of the American 
deration of Labor on December 19, 
24, succeeding the late Samuel 
impers. Mr. Green was secretary- 
asurer of the UMW from 1913 until 
became president of the AFL. 
cording to the constitution of the 
ion, the executive council, in the 
3nt of the death of a president, had 
«er to appoint a successor to hold 
ce until the date of the next 
ivention. Shortly after his election, 
i new president intimated that he 
uld follow the general lines of 
licy laid down by Mr. Gompers. He 
d: "In co-operation with my 
leagues on the executive council of 
' American Federation of Labor and 
chosen officers of all affiliated 
lanizations we will carry forward the 
rk of organization and education 
•ong the workers of our land. Our 
(votion to America and the American 
i.titutions must never be successfully 
'allenged. Our demands upon society 
lj higher standards of life, better 
vges and humane conditions of 
(ployment must ever be based upon 
I inalienable right to the enjoyment 
fjlife, liberty and the pursuit of 

abour Gazette- Jan '75 

Child Performers 

The Director of Child Welfare, a new 
official appointed in Manitoba under 
the Child Welfare Act of 1922. served 
notices to all theatres and other 
places of public entertainment 
throughout the province, drawing the 
attention of the proprietors to the fact 
that the Act forbade the public 
appearance of children under 10 years 
of age as performers. The Child 
Welfare Act became law in 1922 and 
came into effect on September 1, 
1924, by proclamation. 

Travelling Libraries in 

The growth of community libraries 
throughout the rural areas of Canada 
was noted in the September 1924 
issue of The Labour Gazette. The 
article described the various provisions 
that existed in the direction of the 
"utilization of workers' spare time." 
Further information was given at a 
meeting of the Saskatchewan 
Legislature and was published in the 
January 1925 edition of The Labour 

The number of travelling libraries in 
the province was 990. with about 
50,000 books in circulation. These 
books were read by about half a 
million persons in 1924 In the past 
two years, 275 new libraries had been 
started, and 148 new districts had 
applied for libraries in the last four 
months. Many of the libraries were 
sent to outposts of the province- 75 
north and west of Battleford, 12 north 
of Prince Albert and 25 east and 
northeast of Prince Albert. Applications 
from outlying districts were given first 

Books that were slightly worn were 
mended and sent out again, and those 

that were badly worn were taken out 
of circulation and repaired. Since 
January 1, 1924, 13.000 books had 
been thoroughly repaired at an 
average cost of 6 cents a volume. 
The old books that were beyond 
repair were disposed of in various 

Legal Status of Women In 

The National Council of Women, 
which united a large number of 
women's organizations in the cities 
and towns of Canada, requested the 
Dominion Government to publish a 
pamphlet designed to give briefly the 
main sections of the federal and 
provincial statutes dealing with the 
relations of women in the family, in 
industry, in the municipality and in the 
state. As the legislation involved was 
of a social character and various 
phases of it had been the subject of 
discussion and resolutions by labour 
organizations, it was decided that the 
publication should be printed under 
the authority of the Minister of Labour. 
The Department of Labour then issued 
a pamphlet containing extracts from 
the Dominion and provincial laws 
relating to naturalization, franchise, 
eligibility of women for municipal, 
provincial or federal elections and for 
service as magistrates or jurors, 
marriage, divorce, sexual offences, 
married women's earnings and 
property, dower, devolution of estates, 
insurance, mothers' pensions, maternity 
benefits, deserted wives and children, 
legitimization of children born out of 
wedlock, support of children of 
unmarried parents, adoption of 
children, hours of labour and minimum 
wages for employed women, 
workmen's compensation and other 
minor subjects. 

■ id 

Book Review/ 

Canadian Cases in Labour Relations 
and Collective Bargaining; by Hem 
C. Jain, Longmans Canada Limited, 

by Nicole Kean 

This book provides teaching material 
in the field of Canadian labour 
relations. The author aims to assist 
students or groups studying labour 
relations in understanding the 
interaction between management, 
union and environmental factors. 

As he wishes that the learning 
experience for students be exciting 
and the teaching experience for 
teachers satisfying.' he has adopted 
the case formula, which would permit 
role-playing and familiarize the student 
with real-life situations. 

All the chosen cases are authentically 
Canadian. Each one is built up from 
interviews with union, management, 
and government officials; from reports 
of industrial inquiry commissions and 

mediation officers; from court 
proceedings and from grievance and 
negotiation sessions He also draws 
attention to such factors as cultural 
background, economic situation, 
seasonal requirements, political 
philosophy, and historical development. 
These factors can influence and 
complicate an issue They all have to 
be taken into account to assess a 
labour matter. Therefore, the author 
reveals some of these factors where 
they are determinant The extract 
material furnishes the student with the 
necessary data to permit him to 
analyze the case effectively In 
addition, the author raises questions 
pertinent to the case for discussion 

The author divides his book into four 


-Establishing the Bargaining 



-Critical Issues in Collective 


-Union-Management Co-operation 

He offers students and teachers the 
possibility of deepening their 
acquaintance with the entire collective 
bargaining process. 

It is a book that could be useful in 
initiating students at the secondary 
education level. 

(Nicole Kean is Chief of the 
Legislative Analysis Evaluation 
Division, Legislative Research Branch. 
Canada Department of Labour). 


The Labour Gazelle-Jan 75 

h Unorganized Suffer 

flation is driving Canada's union 
ibers to desperation, as Canadian 
■ur Congress president Joe Morris 
is. what does he think it's doing 
e other two thirds ot the workers 
don't have the bargaining power 
ganiA;d labour'' Morris may be 
>jfct at least temporarily, when he 
t\ the proportion ot the total 
a nal income going to workers is 
Adling while corporate profits 
fib. ..But even if Morris has a valid 
3 . it reinforces the view that the 
i effective struggle for bigger and 
j'r shares in Canada s economy is 
in on between those who are 
Mdy comparatively well off: The 
M corporations and the powerful 
t|jr unions. The labour congress 
lis the case itself in a recent 
J cation. In 1951. it points out, the 
Wim 20 per cent of Canada s 
)| Nation received only 4 4 per cent 
1 e total income. Twenty years 
m the lowest fifth had been 
*j:ed to a 3 6 per cent share of 
*!>ational wealth. But most of the 
3>|le m that income bracket do not 
*ikj to the unions which Morris and 
Congress represent. And they 
» inly are not presidents or major 
■upholders of large corporations 
hi are the ones who are bearing 
•jprunt of today's serious inflation. 
*|they are doing it in a desperate 
)lide with no recourse to the picket 

line Society can only redress this 
inequity by accepting some kind of 
regulation on the economically strong 
segments... But people like Morris - 
and, for that matter, much of Canadian 
society as a whole - have not shown 
any willingness to accept this kind of 
discipline.'' Editorial. The Toronto Star, 
September 4, 1974. 

Social Contracts 

"We cannot afford the big battalion' 
philosophy, with power groups, 
whoever they are. trying to seize more 
than their share of what is available. 
That is why. apart from those who 
cannot help themselves, no member 
of our national community has the 
right to seek to take out of our 
national income more than he puts 
into it by his work and effort and skill. 
It is no longer a time for anybody to 
be making money; it's got to be 
earned... We reject a lurch into heavy 
unemployment as a means of fighting 
inflation. It is cruel; it costs the 
country production we cannot afford to 
lose; and the history of these postwai 
years in one country and another has 
shown that it does not work. It is our 
strong determination in the difficult 
period ahead not to let events 
determine the level of unemployment 
but so to act that we ourselves 
remain in control. But that means all 
of us Fighting inflation is a matter of 
national survival. ..This worldwide crisis 
of inflation is the most formidable 

abour Gazette-Jan 75 

challenge we have ever had to meet, 
apart from the challenge of survival in 
wartime We believe that our 
problems can be solved only by a 
partnership between government and 
the whole of our national 
contract ..There can be no opting out. 
That is what the social contract is 
about, and it is going to be more 
vitally necessary than ever in the 
months and years ahead that the 
contract be honoured, in the spirit and 
the letter " British Prime Minister 
Harold Wilson in The Globe and Mail, 
October 21, 1974. 

The Mood in Britain 

"Week by week, the mood in Britain 
becomes stranger, more edgy, more 
apprehensive Nobody can remember 
anything quite like it: not even the 
worst days of the 1930s Many people 
- and they tend to be the most 
intelligent and sophisticated - feel 
that an abyss of anarchy and 
economic disaster yawns just ahead, 
to be followed perhaps by some form 
of totalitarianism, either of the Right or 
of the Left Id emigrate.' they say. 
only half-jokiiig. if I could think of 
anywhere to emigrate to...'. There are 
constant strikes Several public 
services - notably London s buses 
and subways, the mails, and some 
hospital departments - seem to be 
tottering toward collapse Mysterious 
shortages - of milk bottles, for 
example, and lavatory paper - come 


and go for no apparent reason. These 
are, of course, the classic symptoms 
of an accelerating inflation; and 
according to the latest figures, Britain's 
inflation is now moving into the 20 to 
25 per cent range. Already there is no 
way, when the combined effects of 
inflation and the steeply progressive 
income tax have been taken into 
account, for an Englishman to prevent 
his savings being reduced by at least 
7 per cent a year, and, unless he's 
very lucky, by much more.'' From an 
article by Adam Schesch and Pat 
Garrett in The Progressive, quoted in 
The Globe and Mail, September 27, 

Too Hot to Work 

"Foundry workers at the Ex-Cello-0 
Corporation at London have won the 
right to decide whether to work in hot, 
humid weather. Under a new 
contract they will be able to hold a 
secret ballot whenever the humidex - 
a scale that blends heat and humidity 
— reaches 90 If a majority vote to 
quit for the day, then all may do so, 
but the company will try to find work 
for those who want to stay on the 
job. A representative with the 
International Molders and Allied 
Workers Union said the contract may 
be the first of its kind". The Toronto 
Star, October 10, 1974. 

Man's Dilemma 

'The world will have to double its 
productive ability in the next 25 years 
to serve a global population of seven 
billion, according to John Deutsch, 
principal of Queen's University, 
Kingston Dr Deutsch says this will 
be a gigantic task because it has 
taken thousands of years to 
accumulate the skills to feed, house 
and clothe the 3 4 billion people 
currently on the planet. The Queen's 
principal, an economist and former 
chairman of the Economic Council of 
Canada was speaking at a Dilemmas 
of Modern Man symposium taking 
place in Winnipeg. He said the 
greatest dilemma facing the world is 

population explosion coupled with a 
growing shortage of food. Statistically, 
the number of citizens of poor 
countries will rise to 5.4 billion by 
2000, from 2 4 billion at present. But 
in the same period, the population of 
richer countries will increase only to 
1.6 billion from one billion today. Dr. 
Deutsch said the growing imbalance in 
population distribution means rich 
countries must make an enormous 
effort to help the three quarters of 
humanity living in the poor and less 
developed areas of the world The 
dilemma of modern man lies in the 
choice between the acceptance of 
large-scale human tragedy and the 
acceptance of prolonged sacrifices. 
These sacrifices involve not only the 
distribution of wealth, but also the 
willingness to engage in international 
co-operation on the scale needed. The 
latter is perhaps the most vital 
requirement of all.' " Roger Newman, 
in The Globe and Mail. October 31, 

The Work Ethic 

"No one has ever repealed the Law of 
Work, but it is in process of 
amendment From the obscure life 
organs within the body to the building 
of moon landing craft, work is one of 
the conditions of being alive, but we 
need to keep up with changes in its 
form and significance Not everyone is 
happy in his work Job dissatisfaction 
is increasing Workers are being 
infected by an uneasiness whose 
spread is challenging our assumptions 
about work and forcing us to make 
new definitions of jobs. Some of the 
unrest and confusion is caused by the 
fact that we have not the compelling 
urgency of our forefathers. They had 
to work hard to survive; we have 
securities. make sure that we do 
not starve to death. ..Intelligent people, 
when they talk about the need for 
work, are not talking about returning 
to the twelve hour a day use of picks 
and shovels. That workers find fault 
with their jobs is not a new 
phenomenon. What is new is the 
variety of their complaints and their 

increased determination to do 
something about removing the cause. 
The development of a new respect for 
work and the promotion of a better 
understanding between those who 
perform the work and those who 
employ such workers is rapidly 
becoming one of the supreme tasks of 
employer statesmanship ..All the 
change that has been brought about 
by economic and mechanical progress 
cannot be looked upon as being 
against the workers' interest Though 
the production technology has made 
man an appendage of tools and 
machines, and has weakened his 
journeyman's pride and autonomy, it 
has brought the pride of automobiles, 
washing machines, cameras, and 
refrigerators within his reach This 
gratification of his material desires by 
the mass production economy made 
man free to become aware of his 
dormant and unfulfilled psychological 
needs." The Royal Bank of Canada 
Monthly Newsletter. September, 1974. 

Nationalization No Answer 

"There is no doubt that labour 
relations at Vancouver's grain 
elevators are at a very low ebb. 
There is no doubt something should 
be done about it. There is 
considerable doubt that a government 
takeover is the solution A takeover 
seems to be the answer the 
Government is seeking even before 
Mr. Justice Bayda of the 
Saskatchewan Court of Queen's 
Bench has begun his inquiry. The 
judge should not allow himself to be 
influenced by such talk. If the 
takeover proposal is put to him. he 
should take a good look at the federal 
government s own labour relations. 
There is nothing to suggest that over- 
all those relations are better than 
between private corporations and their 
employees. Indeed, it is questionable 
if the grain workers, who seem 
anxious for the government takeover, 
have really considered the problems 
that could arise when the employer 
with whom they would be bargaining 
would also have the power to impose 


The Labour Gazelle-Jan 75 

settlement either directly or by 
leans ot compulsory arbitration. The 
jlationship between the gram 
ompanies and the grain workers 
ertainly is in need ot improvement 
ut a government takeover is not the 
nly option ..A human relationship, 
hich is essentially the problem at the 
ain elevators, is seldom tixed and 
lite. It changes and can be changed, 
might be wiser for Mr Justice 
ayda to look at the difficulty in 
ancouver as a human problem and 
5k himself whether it would be 
fferent under government 
wnership " Editorial. The Vancouver 
ovince, October 18, 1974. 

he Wrong Philosophy 

he shorter and shorter workweek 
nlosophy with which Canadian 
iciologists and labour leaders have 
;en grappling in recent years may 
>t be as much the answer as many 
them have predicted. Gunnar 
Isson, chairman of the Swedish 
ide union conference, has this to 
iy: A 30-hour week points out a 
lure: work should not be created 
id formed so that workers want to 
)rk as little as possible The working 
ivironment should be designed so 
at a man's job is attractive to him. 
that he is really interested in it, not 
that he should want to spend as 
le time as possible at it.' There 
jst be a message in this for 
anagement, too.'' Editorial, The 
tawa Journal, October 21, 1974. 


uring the on-going talks between 
; railway unions and management, 
e of the big issues will centre not 
A on COLA but on PEPPSI COLA. 
)LA stands for cost of living 
Jiustment. and is directly tied to 
•jreases in the consumer price index. 
Vien the index goes up a specific 
c;iount, wages are increased 
riroactively in a set proportion. 
* PPSI COLA puts the emphasis on 
i" intaining real as opposed to money 
vge rates. PEPPSI stands for 

Labour Gazette-Jan 75 

Preservation from Erosion of 
Purchasing Power of Salaries and 
Incomes... Although bargaining for 
COLA is still in its infancy, it is now 
being argued that even COLA clauses 
oflen do not completely protect 
workers from inflation. The chief bone 
the unions pick with COLA clauses is 
that wage adjustments take place after 
prices have risen... COLA clauses 
increase wages three or six months 
after prices have risen Therefore, by 
the end of the contract period, 
workers' wages will have lagged 
behind price hikes Their purchasing 
power will have been reduced and will 
not have been fully protected from 
inflation. All the effort put into 
collective bargaining for COLA and 
PEPPSI COLA on the part of labour is 
basically and effort to stand still rather 
than get ahead on the purchasing 
power scale. The federal Government 
says it is serious about expanding 
production to grow out of inflation. If 
so, it would be doing us all a service 
if it would create an environment in 
which workers are not forced to 
strike The federal Government could 
help create this environment by 
recognizing labour's right to catch up 
on some of the real buying power 
losses it has sustained in the past 
couple of years . " Dian Cohen in The 
Citizen, Ottawa, October 21. 1974. 


aH.1i . 

M M M 


Consumer, October 

The consumer price index 
(1961 = 100) rose 09 per cent to 
172.2 in October from 170 6 in 
September About three quarters of 
this increase was attributable to 
advances of 1 4 per cent and 9 per 
cent in the food and housing indexes, 
respectively. The price level of all 
items other than food rose 0.7 per 
cent Between October 1973 and 
October 1974. the all-items index 
advanced 116 per cent The tobacco 
and alcohol component increased 16 
per cent, and clothing prices rose, on 
average, 8 per cent The recreation, 
education and reading index advanced 
9 per cent, and that for health and 
personal care, 14 per cent. The 
transportation component declined 0.2 
per cent. 


The 1.4 per cent increase in the food 
index, to 196 3 in October from 193 6 
in September, reversed the decline 
that usually occurs between these two 
months. It was mainly because of 
higher prices for bread, milk and 
sugar-related products. These 
increases outweighed seasonally lower 
prices for fresh fruit and reductions for 
some meats, especially beef. All cereal 

and bakery items surveyed registered 
increases in the latest month, with an 
increase of 7 1 per cent in bread 
prices. There was a general advance 
in the retail price level for all dairy 
products, including a 3.7 per cent 
increase for fresh milk. Prices for 
sugar and such related products as 
chocolate bars and soft drinks 
continued to climb: sugar has more 
than tripled and chocolate bars nearly 
doubled in price since October 1973. 
In contrast, meat and poultry prices 
rose less than 2 per cent over the 
same 12-month period At the 
beginning of October, beef prices, 
compared with one month before, 
averaged 2 5 per cent lower, while 
pork and poultry registered increases 
of 1.8 per cent and 1 4 per cent 
respectively. There was a seasonal 
decline of 10 per cent in the fresh 
fruit index, but fresh vegetables rose 4 
per cent mainly because of sharply 
increased prices for tomatoes and 
lettuce Among other food products, 
higher quotations were again recorded 
for fats and oils and for most 
convenience foods; food consumed 
away from home increased 1.2 per 
cent Between October 1973 and 
October 1974. the total food index 
increased 15 7 per cent. The price of 
food consumed at home rose 15.3 
per cent and that for food consumed 
away from home. 17.1 per cent. 


The housing index rose 0.9 per cent, 
to 170,8 in October from 169 2 in 
September, as a result of increases of 
1.2 per cent and 0.5 per cent in the 
shelter and household operation 
components, respectively Within the 
shelter component, the home- 
ownership element rose 1.6 per cent, 
mainly because of increases in the 
indexes for property taxes, mortgage 
interest and home-owner repairs; rents 
advanced 0.5 per cent. Among 
household operation items, furniture 
prices increased, on average. 1 1 per 
cent as most items surveyed recorded 
increases Other home furnishings, 
including floor coverings, linen and 
draperies, also registered advances: 
sale prices for dishes in some cities 
resulted in a small decline in the 
tableware component Household 
supply items rose 1.2 per cent, on 
average, in response to increases in 
all items surveyed: the index for 
household services advanced 1 per 
cent following telephone rate increases 
in some centres Between October 
1973 and October 1974. the housing 
index rose 10.3 per cent 


The clothing index rose 8 per cent, 
to 156.3 in October from 155.0 in 
September, registering a smaller 
increase than had occurred between 
these two months in the previous two 
years. The price of mens wear, which 
rose 1.0 per cent, and women s wear, 
which rose 0.8 per cent, were 
responsible for about three fifths of 
the increase in the total clothing 
index Children s clothing prices 
averaged 1.7 per cent higher, the 
footwear index advanced 0.7 per cent, 
and the component for piece goods 
and notions rose 0.3 per cent. The 
clothing index was 9.8 per cent above 
its level of a year ago. 


The transportation index declined 0.2 
per cent, to 153 4 in October from 


The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 

3.7 in September, as gasoline 
ces decreased 0.5 per cent, on 
erage. and there was a reduction in 
3 tram fares index. Partially 
setting these declines were higher 
er-city bus fares in Alberta. British 
)lumbia and Nova Scotia and 
;reased local transit fares in 
lunder Bay. Higher prices were also 
corded for motor oil in several major 
les. The transportation index stood 
8 per cent higher than in October 

talth and personal care 

ie health and personal care index 
;reased 1 .4 per cent, to 1 75.4 in 
;tober from 173.0 in September, 
imanly because of higher dentists' 
es and higher prices for personal 
ire supplies, especially toilet soap, 
lir preparations and toothpaste. The 
,'alth and personal care index was 
).1 per cent higher than a year ago. 

icreation, education and reading 

le recreation, education and reading 
jex rose 0.9 per cent, to 164 3 in 
:tober from 162.9 in September, 
enerally higher admission prices for 
>ckey games and increased driving 
sson fees accounted for about two 
irds of this advance The R.E.R. 
dex was 1 1 .2 per cent above its 
vel of a year ago. 

)bacco and alcohol 

ie tobacco and alcohol index rose 
6 per cent, to 147.8 in October from 
15.5 in September. Most of the 
crease was attributable to generally 
gher cigarette prices In the latest 
months, the tobacco and alcohol 
dex advanced 8.2 per cent. 

Dnsumer price movements, 
classified by goods and services, 
ve another view of the incidence of 
ice change. Between September and 
ctober. the total goods index 
Ivanced 9 per cent, with the main 
ipetus coming from the non-durable 
>ods, which rose 1.1 per cent mainly 

e Labour Gazelle- Jan 75 

because of higher prices for food, 
tobacco products, domestic supplies 
and toiletry items. The index for semi- 
durable goods increased 0.8 per cent, 
primarily because of higher quotations 
for clothing and household furnishings. 
An increase of 0.3 per cent for 
durable goods was due mainly to 
higher prices for furniture. An advance 
of 0.9 per cent was recorded in the 
services index, with the major 
contributors being the shelter, 
recreation, education and health 
elements In the latest 12 months, the 
total goods index advanced 13 per 
cent and that for services 9.1 per 

Wholesale, September 

The general wholesale index (1935- 
39 = 100) rose 0.4 per cent in 
September to 470 7 from the revised 
August index of 469 It was 17 4 
per cent higher than a year earlier. 
Six of the eight major group indexes 
increased, two declined. 

The iron products group index 
increased 1.5 per cent to 461.5 from 

454.6 in August, reflecting price 
increases of 3.8 per cent for tinplate 
and galvanized sheets. The chemical 
products group index rose 1 .4 per 
cent to 343 3 from the revised August 
index of 338.7 on higher prices for 
soap and detergents. An advance of 
0.5 per cent to 506.1 from the revised 
August index of 503.1 in the animal 
products group reflected price 
movements for milk and its products, 
cured meats and hides and skins. 
Advances of a lesser degree were 
recorded in three major indexes - 
vegetable products 4 per cent to 
484.3 from 482.2, non-metallic 
minerals 0.3 per cent to 349.8 from 

348.7 and wood products 0.2 per cent 
to 578.8 from 577.6. 

The non-ferrous metals group index 
declined 1.1 per cent to 424.2 from 
the revised August index of 429.1. 
The textile products group index 
decreased 0.4 per cent to 428.0 from 

City consumer, September 

Consumer price indexes rose in all 
regional cities and city-combinations in 
September, with increases ranging 
from 0.1 per cent in Quebec and 
Montreal to 1.0 per cent in Winnipeg 
Food indexes increased in eight cities 
and city-combinations and declined in 
four. Prices were generally higher for 
dairy, bakery and cereal products, 
pork, poultry, processed fruit and 
vegetables, frozen food, sugar, 
beverages, and food eaten away from 
home. In most centres, lower prices 
were registered for beef cuts, fresh 
produce and eggs. Housing 
components rose in all cities in 
response to increased shelter costs 
and higher prices for furniture, 
appliances (including repairs), floor 
coverings and household supplies 
Clothing indexes increased in all cities, 
and prices were generally higher for 
most items of apparel, including 
footwear. Increased charges were 
recorded for laundry, dry cleaning and 
shoe repairs. Transportation 
components advanced in ten cities 
and city-combinations, reflecting higher 
prices for new cars, tires and motor 
oil Health and Personal care indexes 
rose in all cities as a result of 
increased prices for pharmaceuticals 
and toiletries. Recreation, education 
and reading components also 
increased in all cities, as higher prices 
were registered for magazines, 
phonograph records and television 
repairs. Tobacco and alcohol indexes 
registered mixed movements across 
the country. 

City consumer, October 

Consumer price indexes rose in all 
regional cities and city combinations 
during October: increases ranged from 
0.4 per cent in Ottawa and Halifax to 
1.5 per cent in St. John's. Prices 
were generally higher for dairy, bakery 
and cereal products, pork cuts, eggs, 
processed fruits and vegetables, 
beverages and restaurant food In 
most cities, prices were lower for beef 
products and fresh produce. Housing 


components advanced in all cities 
except Halifax because of increased 
shelter costs and higher prices for 
furniture, floor coverings and 
household supplies. Clothing indexes 
rose in all cities; prices were generally 
higher for most apparel items 
including footwear. Health and 
personal care components rose in all 
cities as a result of increased dentist 
fees and higher prices for 
pharmaceuticals and toiletries. 
Recreation, education and reading 
components advanced in all centres 
except Halifax, with higher admission 
charges to hockey games and an 
increase in driving lesson fees. 

Tobacco and alcohol components rose 
in all cities and combinations except 
Saskatoon-Regma. Quotations were 
generally higher for cigarettes and 
cigarette tobacco, and in Alberta and 
British Columbia some alcoholic 
beverages registered price increases. 
Transportation indexes rose in three 
cities, declined in seven and were 
unchanged in two. 

U.S. employment, October 

Employment declined in almost every 
sector of the population in October 
while unemployment increased to 6 
per cent of the workforce, the U.S. 
Department of Labor reported. The 
September unemployment figure was 

5.8 per cent. The unemployment rate 
of 6 per cent recorded in October 
egualled the highest unemployment 
level reached in the recession that 
began in 1969 That rate was set in 
November 1971. The number of 
unemployed persons in October was 
5.500,000. an increase of 200.000 after 
adjustments that eliminated the effects 
of regular seasonal variations. Since 
October 1973, the jobless total has 
risen by 1.3 million persons, almost 
60 per cent of whom lost their jobs. 
The number of persons who wanted 
full-time work but were able to find 
only part-time jobs rose by another 
100,000 in October to reach a total of 

2.9 million. Persons who are 
involuntarily working only part-time are 
counted as "employed" in the report. 

Employment, October 

The labour force in October was 
estimated at 9.699,000 persons, of 
whom 9,269.000 were employed and 
430,000 unemployed. Statistics Canada 
reported. For the week ended October 
12. seasonally adjusted employment 
was 9.215.000, an increase of 29,000 
from September. There was an 
increase of 28.000 in the number of 
employed women 25 years of age and 
over, and of 13,000 in the number of 
persons age 14 to 24; employment 
among men age 25 and over declined 
by 19,000. Full-time employment for 
women increased by 27,000 to 
2,412,000, and for men it declined by 
15.000 to 5.637.000. part-time 
employment rose by 28.000 to a level 
of 1,175.000. Employment increased in 
all provinces except Nova Scotia and 
British Columbia-Newfoundland. 5,000; 
Prince Edward Island, 2.000; New 
Brunswick. 3.000: Quebec. 4,000; 
Ontario. 25.000; Manitoba 9.000: 
Saskatchewan. 12.000: and Alberta 
15,000. The decreases were, in Nova 
Scotia 2,000; and in British Columbia 


Seasonally adjusted unemployment 
decreased by 41.000 to 522.000 in 
October. There was an increase in 
the level for men 25 years of age and 
over, while the level for women in that 
age group, and for persons age 14 to 
24, decreased. Short-term 
unemployment, three months or less, 
declined by 20.000 to 358,000; long- 
term unemployment, four months or 
more, decreased by 20.000 to 
163,000. Unemployment decreased 
slightly in all provinces except New 
Brunswick, where there was no 
change, and in British Columbia 
where it increased slightly. 

Unemployment Rate 

The seasonally adjusted national 
unemployment rate was 5.4 in 
October compared with 5 8 in 
September and 5.3 in August. The 

September figure may be revised 
downward when the full year s data 
are available. The rate declined by 
0.6 for women 25 years of age and 
over and for persons age 14 to 24. It 
increased 2 for men age 25 and 
over. The rate decreased in all 
provinces except British Columbia. 
where it increased by 2. The decline 
was 1.8 in Newfoundland. 3 in Nova 
Scotia 0.1 in New Brunswick. 0.4 in 
Quebec. 0.3 in Ontario. 5 in 
Manitoba 4 in Saskatchewan and 
0.2 in Alberta. 

Participation Rate 

The seasonally adjusted participation 
rate for Canada declined slightly to 
58 4 in October from 58 5 in 
September. The rate was unchanged 
for persons age 14 to 24. decreased 
0.3 for men age 25 and over, and 
increased slightly. 0.1. for women in 
that age group The participation rate 
decreased in Nova Scotia Quebec 
and British Columbia All other 
provinces had increased participation 

Employment, September 

Between August and September, 
employment decreased and 
unemployment increased, Statistics 
Canada reported. The unemployment 
rate rose from 5 3 in August to 5 8 in 


Employment declined from 9.248.000 
in August to 9 186.000 in September: 
a year ago the employment level was 
8.763,000 There was a substantial 
decline of 43.000 in the employment 
of women 25 years of age and over 
but an increase of 11,000 for men in 
that age group, and 3.000 for persons 
age 14—24 In full-time employment. 
there was a decrease of 87.000. and 
in part-time employment an increase 
of 20,000. The employment level 
decreased in all regions except British 
Columbia which showed an increase. 
The most substantial change was a 
decline of 43.000 in Ontario 


The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 


Unemployment increased from 522,000 
in August to 563,000 in September. 
There was a large increase in the 
level lor persons age 14 to 24 years. 
The level increased also for men 25 
years of age and over but it 
decreased for women in that age 
group. The number of persons 
unemployed less than one month 
decreased, and the number who had 
been without work for one month or 
more increased. The unemployment 
level rose in all regions, with the 
largest increase, 12,000 occurring in 


The participation rate decreased from 
58.9 in August to 58.5 in September; 
it was 57.5 in September of 1973. 

There was a substantial decline, 0.9, 
in the rate for women 25 years of age 
and over. The rate for men in that 
age group, and for persons 14-24, 
increased slightly. In British Columbia 
it increased 0.8. and decreased in 
other regions. The largest decline, 0.9, 
was in Ontario. 

U.S. consumer, September 

The U.S. consumer price index, 
seasonally adjusted, increased 1.2 per 
cent in September as the retail prices 
of foods continued to advance; without 
the adjustments, it was 1 . 1 per cent. 
Prices of commodities other than food 
registered their smallest gain of the 
year, although it was 1 per cent in 
one month. The increase in food 
prices was 1.9 per cent. 

Consumer prices were 12.1 per cent 
higher than in September 1973 - the 

first time since 1947 that a rise of as 
much as 12 per cent was recorded 
for a year. The largest increase in 
September. 3.2 per cent, was in the 
price of meat, fish and poultry The 
prices of fresh fruits and vegetables 
declined slightly, while, contrary to the 
normal seasonal trend, the prices of 
dairy products advanced. There was a 
price decline of 1.5 per cent in 
gasoline and motor oil. The only other 
major price decrease in September 
was in women's and girls' apparel — 
it declined 0.8 per cent after normal 
seasonal adjustment. Other than food, 
items showing the largest price 
increases included used cars, 2.8 per 
cent; new cars, 2.1 per cent; and 
housekeeping and home-maintenance 
services, 1.7 per cent. 

Hie Labour Gazette- Jan '75 


During October the Minister of 
Labour appointed conciliation 
officers to deal with the following 

R. Martel Express Limited and or 
Martel Express Limited and or 
Commutex Inc.. Farnham, Que., and 
Transport Drivers. Warehousemen and 
Helpers' Union. Local 106 (Conciliation 
Officer: G.R. Doucet). 

Nation-Wide Interior Maintenance Co. 
Ltd.. Montreal. Que., and Building 
Service Employees' Union, Local 298, 
Q.F.L. (Conciliation Officer: ST. 

Quebecair. Montreal International 
Airport. Que , and International 
Association of Machinists and 
Aerospace Workers (representing a 
unit of maintenance, traffic and 
operations employees) (Conciliation 
Officer: G.R. Doucet). 

Moncton Broadcasting Limited, 
Moncton, N.B.. and National 
Association of Broadcast Employees 
and Technicians (Conciliation Officer: 
R.L. Kervin). 

Swan River-The Pas Transfer Ltd.. 
Winnipeg. Man., and General Drivers, 
Warehousemen and Helpers. Local 
979 (Conciliation Officer: A E. Koppel). 

Essex Terminal Railway Company, 
Windsor. Ont.. and Teamsters. 
Chauffeurs. Warehousemen and 
Helpers. Local 880 (Conciliation 
Officer: HA. Fisher) (LG, November). 

Eastern Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, Sydney. N.S., and 
International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers. Local 2096 (Conciliation 
Officer: C.A. Ogden) 

Moffat Communications Limited, 
Vancouver. B C . and Canadian Union 
of Public Employees. Broadcast 
Division Conciliation Officers: A A. 
Franklin and D H Cameron). 

Canada Tungsten Mining Corporation 
Limited. Tungsten. N W T.. and United 
Steelworkers of America, Local 953 
(Conciliation Officers: D.S. Tysoe and 
J.M. Collins). 

Tippet-Richardson (Ottawa) Limited. 
Ottawa Ont.. and Teamsters. 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen arid 
Helpers, Local 91 (Conciliation Officer: 
K. Hulse). 

Settlements by Conciliation 
Officers. Pan American World 
Airways. Inc. (Churchill Research 
Range). Fort Churchill. Man., and 
United Steelworkers of America. Local 
6921 (Conciliation Officer: A E. Koppel) 
(reassigned to H Bartenbach) (LG, 

Triangle Pacific Forest Products Ltd.. 
New Westminster. B.C.. and Canadian 
Merchant Guild (Conciliation Officer: 
A. A. Franklin) (LG. December). 

Inspiration Drilling (Division of Dresser 
Industrial Products. Limited). 
Yellowknife, N.W.T.. and United 
Steelworkers of America Local 7288 
(Conciliation Officers D.H Cameron 
and G.W. Rogers) (LG. September) 

Disputes in which no further 
conciliation action was taken under 
the Canada Labour Code (Part 
V-lndustrial Relations). Detroit and 
Canada Tunnel Corporation. Detroit. 
Michigan and International Union. 
United Automobile. Aerospace & 
Agricultural Implement Workers of 
America Local 195 (UAW) 
(Conciliation Officer: K. Hulse) (LG. 


The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 

Disputes settled following the 
lecision to take no further 
:onciliatory action under Canada 
.abour Code (Part V-lndustrial 
delations). Motor Transport Industrial 
delations Bureau of Ontario. Inc 
representing certain member 
ompanies within federal jurisdiction) 
ind Teamsters Local Unions 91, 141. 
179. 880 and 938 (settled with 
ssistance of T.B McRae) (LG. 
>ecember). Eldorado Nuclear Limited, 
drt Hope. Ont., and United 
teelworkers of America. Local 13173 
Conciliation Officers: HA. Fisher and 
lenry Bartenbach) (LG. December). 

onciliation commissioner 
ppointments. B-Lme Express 
mited. Calgary. Alta . and General 
ruck Drivers and Helpers, Local 31, 
eneral Teamsters. Local 362 
Onciliation Commissioner: Hugh G. 
adner) (LG. December). 

snt^l Mortgage and Housing 
Drpor.ation. Ottawa. Ont.. and Public 
?rvice Alliance of Canada 
^presenting a unit of service 
nployees) (Conciliation 
)mmissioner: George S.P. Ferguson, 
C.) (LG. November). 

IBR Radio Limited and CJBR-TV 
nited. Rimouski. Que . and National 
sociation of Broadcast Employees 
d Technicians (Conciliation 
'mmissioner: R. Tremblay) (LG. 

Conciliation commissioner reports 
received. Pacific Pilotage Authority. 
Vancouver, B C. and Canadian 
Merchant Service Guild (representing 
a unit of employees classified as 
launchmasters and launch engineers) 
(Conciliation Commissioner: Hugh G. 
Lader) (LG, December). 

Air Canada and Canadian Air Line 
Pilots Association (Conciliation 
Commissioner: Stanley H Hartt) (LG. 
November). Nordair Limited. Montreal 
International Airport. Dorval. Que. and 
Canadian Air Line Pilots Association 
(Conciliation Commissioner: Professor 
Perry Meyer) (LG. August). 

Conciliation commissioner 
settlement. Trailways (Travelways) ot 
Canada Limited. Thornhill, Ont.. and 
Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers 
(representing a unit of bus drivers 
working in and out of Georgetown, 
Ont.,) (Conciliation Commissioner: 
George S.P. Ferguson. Q.C.) (LG. 

Disputes settled in post-conciliation 
commissioner negotiations. Nordair 
Limited, Montreal International Airport, 
Dorval. Que., and Canadian Air Line 
Pilots Association (see above). 

Island Airlines Limited, Campbell River. 
B.C.. and Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway. Transport and General 
Workers (representing a unit of ground 
personnel) (LG, December). 

ITT Canada Limited (Technical and 
Support Services Division. Ottawa. 
Ont.) and International Brotherhood of 
Electrical Workers, Local 2228 (LG. 

Legal strike and or lockout action 
following conciliation commissioner 
procedure. Freshwater Fish Marketing 
Corporation. Winnipeg. Man., and 
Retail. Wholesale and Department 
Store Union. Local 561 (strike 
commenced October 12. 1974) (LG. 

Alberta Wheat Pool. Burrard Terminals 
Limited. Pacific Elevators Limited. 
Saskatchewan Wheat Pool and United 
Gram Growers Limited and Grain 
Workers Union. Local 333 (settled as 
a result of West Coast Grain Handling 
Operations Act. 1974 passed by 
Parliament October 10. 1974) (LG. 

Cargill Grain Company Ltd.. Baie- 
Comeau. Que and Le Syndicat 
national des employes de Cargill Grain 
Company Ltd (CSN) (lockout 
terminated on October 16. 1974) (LG 

Strike action following appointment 
of mediator under Section 195, 
Canada Labour Code. Canadian 
Lake Carriers Association. Montreal. 
Que., and Canadian Marine Officers 
Union (settled with the mediation 
assistance of C.E. Poirier) (LG, November). 

abour Gazelle-Jan 75 



to the 

LIST NO. 309 

The publications listed below are 
recent acquisitions. They may be 
borrowed through a local library 
(business, university, public, etc ) or 
directly if there is no local library. 
When requesting loans, please indicate 
the publication numeral and the month 


1. Baum, Daniel Jay. The final 
plateau; the betrayal ol our older 
citizens Toronto, Burns & 
MacEachern. 1974 315p. 


2. Trotta, Maurice S. Arbitration of 
labor-management disputes. 2d ed. 
New York, AMACOM, 1974. 499p. 


3. Luke, Hugh D. Automation for 
productivity New York. Becker and 
Hayes. 1972 290p 


4. Sobin, Dennis P. The working 
poor; minority workers in low-wage, 
low-skill jobs Port Washington, NY., 
Kennikat Press, 1973. 194p. 


5. Seglow. Peter. Pre-expenence 
business education and the EEC, by 
Peter Seglow and Michael Thomas. 
London, PEP., 1974. 55p. 


6. United Steelworkers of America. 
Canadian National Office. Research 
Department. Summary of collective 
agreements, March 1974. Toronto. 
1974. 227p 

7. Morse, Bruce. How to negotiate 
the labor agreement; an outline 
summary of tested bargaining practice 
expanded from earlier editions. 5th ed. 
Detroit, Trends Pub. Co.. 1974. 83p. 

8. Najita, Joyce M. Guide to 
statutory provisions in public sector 
collective bargaining; the public 
employer and the duty to bargain. 
Honolulu. Industrial Relations Center, 
University of Hawaii. 1974. 93p. 

9. Najita, Joyce M. Guide to 
statutory provisions in public sector 
collective bargaining scope of 
negotiations. Honolulu. Industrial 
Relations Center. University of Hawaii, 
1973. 57p 

10. Najita, Joyce M. Guide to 
statutory provisions in public sector 
collective bargaining union security, by 
Joyce M Najita and Dennis T. 
Ogawa. Honolulu, Industrial Relations 
Center, University of Hawaii, 1973 

11. Ogawa, Dennis T. Guide to 
statutory provisions in public sector 
collective bargaining unit 
determination, by Dennis T. Ogawa 
and Joyce M Najita Honolulu. 
Industrial Relations Center, University 
of Hawaii, 1974. 91. 

12. Tanimoto. Helene S. Guide to 
statutory provisions in public sector 
collective bargaining impasse 
resolution pro< edures. Honolulu. 
Industrial Relations Center, University 
of Hawaii. 1973 104p. 


13. Johnson, Robert Willard. 
Canadian financial management, by 
Robert W. Johnson and John D 
Forsyth. Boston. Allyn and Bacon. 
1974. 569p 


14. Smith, David J. Racial 
disadvantage in employment. London. 
P.E.P.. 1974. 107p. 


15. Bornstein, Morris, comp. The 

Soviet economy; a book of readings. 
Edited by Morris Bornstein and Daniel 
R. Fusfeld. 4th ed. Homewood. III.. 
R.D. Irwin. 1974. 543p. 

16. Denison, Edward Fulton. 

Accounting for United States economic 
growth. 1929-1969 Washington. 
Brookings Institution, 1974. 355p 


17. Ash, J.C.K. Forecasting the 
United Kingdom economy, by J C.K. 
Ash and D.J. Smyth Westmead. Eng., 
Saxon House; Lexington. Mass., 
Lexington Books. 1973. 267p 


The Labour Gazelle- Jan 75 


18. Munroe, David Climie. The 

organization and administration of 
education in Canada. Ottawa. 
Information Canada 1974. 219p. 


19. National Economic Conference, 
Montreal, 1973. Energy Committee. 

The energy industries in Canada: 
issues and recommendations. The 
Author, 1974. 35p. 


20. LeClair, Maurice. Overview of the 
Canadian health care system. Ottawa 
Canada Dept. of National Health and 
Welfare. 1974. 198, 19p. 

21. Migue, Jean-Luc. The price of 
health, by Jean-Luc Migue and Gerard 
Belanger. Translated from the French 
by Nicole Fredette and James 
Robinson. Toronto. Macmillan of 
Canada 1974. 229p. 


22. Glickman, Albert Seymour. 

Changing schedules of work: patterns 
and implications, by Albert S. 
Glickman and Zenia H. Brown. 
Kalamazoo. Mich., WE Upjohn 
nstitute tor Employment Research, 
1974. 104p. 

23. Ontario. Ministry of Labour. 
Research Branch. Employee attitudes 
oward compressed work schedules in 
Dntano: a case study of ten firms, by 
3. Robertson and P. Ferlejowski. 
Toronto, 1974. 21 p. 


?4. Income maintenance and labor 
supply; econometric studies. Edited 
>y Glen G Cain and Harold W 
Vatts Chicago. Rand McNally College 
'ub. Co.. 1973. 373p. 


5. Parkinson, Cyril Northcote, ed. 

ldustnal disruption. Contributors: C. 
lorthcote Parkinson and others, 
•ondon, New York, Leviathan House. 
973. 181 p. 

>e Labour Gazette-Jan 75 

26. Shorter, Edward. Strikes in 
France, 1830-1968. by Edward Shorter 
and Charles Tilly. London. Cambridge 
University Press, 1974. 428p. 


27. Research Conference on Labor 
Relations. University of California, 
Los Angeles. 15th, 1973. 

Management of conflict: implications 
for community relations and for the 
world of work: proceedings... 
presented by the Institute of Industrial 
Relations in cooperation with 
University Extension. University of 
California Los Angeles. Los Angeles, 
Institute of Industrial Relations. 
University of California 1974. 85. 8p. 


28. Coates, Daniel. Organized labor 
and politics in Canada: the 
development of a national labor code. 
Ann Arbor, University Microfilms. 1974, 
C1973. 262p. 

29. Okochi, Kazuo. Workers and 
employers in Japan the Japanese 
employment relations system. Edited 
by Kazuo Okochi. Bernard Karsh and 
Solomon B Levme Princeton. N J., 
Princeton University Press: Tokyo. 
University of Tokyo Press, 1974. 
C1973. 538p. 


30. Conference Board. Inflation in 
the United States: causes and 
consequences: proceedings of the 
Conference Board Economic Forum. 
May 21. 1974. New York, New York. 
New York. 1974. 102p. 

31. Taylor, Jim. Unemployment and 
wage inflation, with special reference 
to Britain and the U.S.A. Harlow, Eng . 
Longman. 1974. 120p. 


32. Ontario Federation of Labour 
(CLC). Research Department. 

Harvest of concern: conditions in 
farming and problems of farm labour 
in Ontario, by Bob Ward. Toronto, 
1974. 69p. 


33. Brody, Doris Cohen. American 
Labor Education Service, 1927-1962: 
an organization in workers' education. 
Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, 1974, 
C1973. 255p. 

34. Symposium on the Role of 
Universities in Workers' Education, 
Geneva, 1973. The role of 
universities in workers' education; 
proceedings, etc. Geneva. International 
Labour Office. 1974. 21 6p. 


35. Musson, Albert Edward. Trade 
union and social history. London, 
Frank Cass. 1974. 211 p. 


36. International Labour Office. 

Role, functions and institutional 
development of labour administration: 
a working paper for a Meeting of 
Experts on Labour Administration, 
Geneva 15-26 October 1973. Geneva 
1973. 1 1 5p. Titre en francais: Role, 
foncttons et evolution mstitutionnelle 
de ladministration du travail. 


37. California public employee 
relations, September 1974. Berkeley. 
University of California Institute of 
Industrial Relations. 1974. 82p Partial 
contents. -A study of state civil 
service employee associations, by 
Jerry Lelchook. -Recent developments 
in California public jurisdictions. 

38. Henry. Alice. The trade union 
woman. New York. B. Franklin, 1973. 
314p. Reprint. 


39. Stein, Leon, comp. Workers 
speak self portraits Edited, with an 
introduction by Leon Stein and Philip 
Taft. New York, Arno, 1971. 128p 
Originally published in the Independent 
from 1902-1906. 



40. French, Wendell Lowell. 

Organization development, behavioral 
science interventions for organization 
improvement, by Wendell L. French 
and Cecil H Bell. Englewood Cliffs, 
N.J., Prentice-Hall. 1973. 207p. 


41. U.S. National Manpower 
Advisory Committee. Federal 
manpower policy in transition; National 
Manpower Advisory Committee letters 
to the Secretaries of Labor and of 
Health. Education, and Welfare. 1972- 
73. Washington. US. Department of 
Labor, Manpower Administration. 1974. 


42. Skoulas, Nicholas. Determinants 
of the participation rate of married 
women in the Canadian labour force: 
an econometric analysis. Ottawa, 
Information Canada 1974. 126p Titre 
en francais: Les determinants du taux 
d'activite des femmes mariees dans la 
population active canadienne 


43. Daniel, William Wentworth. 

Incomes policy and collective 
bargaining at the workplace; a study 
of the productivity criterion cases, by 
WW Daniel and Neil Mcintosh. 
London, PEP.. 1973. 73p. 


44. Conference on Labor 
Productivity, Ravello, Italy, 1971. 

Industrial management: East and West: 
papers from the International 
Economic Association Conference on 
Labor Productivity, 1971 Edited by 
Aubrey Silberston and Francis Seton 
New York, Praeger, 1973. 261 p. 


45. Rose, Peter Isaac. They and we: 
racial and ethnic relations in the 
United States. 2d ed New York, 
Random House, 1974. 256p. 


46. Heaps, James L. ed. Everybody s 
Canada: The Vertical Mosaic reviewed 
and re-examined Toronto. Burns & 
MacEachern. c1974 178p. 


47. Horn, Michiel, comp. Studies in 
Canadian social history, edited by 
Michiel Horn and Ronald Sabourin. 
Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 
1974. 480p 

48. The quality of life in America; 
pollution, poverty, power, and fear. 

Edited by A David Hill and others. 
New York. Holt. Rmehart and Winston. 

1973. 549p 


49. Christian, David E. Social 
indicators: the OECD experience. 
Paris. Organisation for Economic Co- 
operation and Development. 1974. 

50. Conference on the Measurement 
of Economic and Social 
Performance, Princeton University, 
1971. The measurement of economic 
and social performance (papers). 
Milton Moss, editor New York. 
National Bureau of Economic 
Research; distributed by Columbia 
University Press. 1973. 605p 


51. Booth, Philip. Social security in 
America Foreword by Fedele F. Faun. 
Ann Arbor. Institute of Labor and 
Industrial Relations. University of Michigan- 
Wayne State University. 180p.l973. 28p. 

52. Institute de recherche applique 
sur le travail. Bulletin no 1; la 
protection du revenu de la famille en 
cas de deces du travailleur, par 
Raymond Depatie Montreal, 1974. 23p. 


53. Sorkin, Alan Lowell. Education, 
unemployment, and economic growth. 
Lexington. Mass., Lexington Books, 

1974. 186p. 


54. McCulloch, Frank W. The 
National Labor Relations Board, by 
Frank W. McCulloch and Tim 
Bornstein. New York, Praeger. 1974. 


55. Gillespie. Alan. The management 
of wage payment systems. London, 
Kogan Page. 1973. 151 p. 


56. Bureau international du Travail. 

Le travail des femmes dans un monde 
en evolution: rapport preliminnire. 
Geneve. Bureau international du 
Travail. 1973. 86p 


57. Ontario. Women's Bureau. Law 
and the woman in Ontario. Toronto. 
1974. 19p 


58. Sociologie et Societes. Femme. 
travail, syndicalisme: numero realise 
par Jacques Dofny Montreal. Presses 
de I'Universite de Montreal. 1974 


59. Shorter, Edward, comp. Work 
and community in the West. New 
York. Harper & Row 1973. 146p 


60. Thomas, Roger. Looking forward 
to work; a report on the first stage of 
a follow-up survey of fifteen and 
sixteen year old boy school-leavers, 
carried out by Social Survey Division 
of the Office of Population Censuses 
and Surveys on behalf of the Central 
Youth Employment Executive, by 
Roger Thomas and Diana Wetherell 
London, HMSO. 1974 436p. 


The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 


rincipal Items 




Percentage Change 

Previous Previous 

Month Year 


Week ended October 12. 1974 


Paid workers 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours 

Employed but not at work 

British Columbia 

Without work and seeking work 
On temporary layoff up to 30 days 

Manufacturing employment! 1961 = 100), 

Destined to the labour force 

Strikes and lockouts 
No of workers involved 
Duration in man days 

Average weekly earnings and salaries (ind comp )l 
Average hourly earnings (mfg )j 
Average weekly hours paid! 
Consumer price index(1961 = 100) 

Index numbers of weekly wages in 1961 dollars! 1961 = 
Total labour income (millions of dollars), 

Total (average 1961 = 100) 



I Starts 
1 Completions 
Under construction 


9 699 

1 .494 



2 5 



7 8 
11 9 

4 2 










3 4 











2 2 


3 1 




9 7 


31 7 




12 1 


16 1 


41 1 








18 8 


11 8 














1st 6 mos. 1974 







September 1974 


3 3 


43 6 




11 7 


41 8 






12 9 

July 1974 




2 1 


12 2 



2 6 


13 3 




1 5 



October 1974 






11 6 

0), July 1974 





1 8 






2 3 







2 9 






2 5 





3 2 










4 2 



7 8 

lilimates of the labour force, the employed and the unemployed are from The Labour Force, a monthly publication of Statistics Canada which 
{addition, contains the characteristics of the labour force, together with definitions and explanatory notes 
Uvance data 
'Vntres of 10.000 population or more 

Labour Gazette-Jan 75 



Statistical information on work stoppages in Canada is compiled by the Economics and Research Branch of the Canada Department of Labour 
on the basis of reports from the Canada Manpower Division. Department of Manpower and Immigration The first three tables in this section 
cover strikes and lockouts that amount to 10 or more man-days The number of workers involved includes all workers reported on strike or 
lockout, whether or not they all belonged to the union directly involved in the disputes leading to the work stoppages Workers indirectly 
affected, such as those laid off as a result of a work stoppage, are not included 


Strikes and Lockouts in Existence During Month or Year 

Month or Year 

Strikes and 

Duration in 




Percentage of 








or Year 



Man Days 









261 .706 


























491 . 140 















271 .760 














66. 162 






1 .431 .730 





















790 790 









t April 







i Revised 




In Effect During Month 

In Effect During Month 
















rs Man- 



- Work 

ers Man- 




Involved Davs 





zed Days 












Prince Edward Island 










Nova Scotia 





11 .340 






New Brunswick 











561 .840 










1 .844 









& utilities 



11 ,978 






1 .440 



























British Columbia 




34 5 


Public admin 

















All |unsdictions 







The Labour Gazelle- Jan 75 


Industry Starling 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Major Issues 

Workers Accu- Termination 

Location Union Involved Sept mulated Date Result 


Kokotow Lumber Ltd. 
Kenogami . Ont 

loc 2994 




Sept 30 




Newfoundland Fish- 
eries Assoc . 
Various locations 

Food Workers 
various locals 

1,000 5.000 32,000 July 25 Prices paid tor fish-Settled 

Sept 10 by mutual agreement 



Cominco Ltd 
Salmo & Kimberley 

loc 901 & 651 

1. 130 23.640 72.870 July 1 

Wages, cost-of-living escalator 
clause & pension benefits 

Cominco Ltd. 
Kimberley B C 

Assoc of Commer- 
cial & Technical 
Employees loc 1672 
(CLC directly 

130 2.790 

8.550 July 1 

Wages, cost-of-living escalator 
clause, fringe benefits 

Utah Mines Ltd 
Port Hardy, B C 

St Lawrence Colum- 
bium & Metals Corp 
Oka. Que 

Int Operating 
Engineers loc 115 

loc 7579 

573 10,230 20.050 Aug 8 Respecting picket lines ot 

Sept. 26 Office Employees loc 15- 

Return of workers when agree- 
ment reached with Office 

185 3.700 


Aug 26 



Cardinal River Coals 
Hinton. Alta 


Mine Workers 200 1.000 17.410 May 4 

loc 1656 (CLC) Sept 10 

Fringe benefits-Settled by 
mutual agreement 

Flinkote Co of Can 
St. Georges, Nfld 

Cement Workers 
loc 506 

105 1.350 1.350 Sept 13 

Wages, cost-of-living adjust- 



Hiram Walker and Sons 
Ltd . Windsor, Ont 

Can Union of 
Distillery Workers 
loc 1 

800 16,000 50.400 July 2 

Slowness in negotiations- 

Quaker Oats Co of 
Can. Ltd , Trenton. 

Food Workers 
loc P1 172 

195 590 8,400 July 5 

Sept. 6 

Wages, cost-of-living clause- 
Settled through mediation 

The Labour Gazette- Jan/ 75 



Industry Starting 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Major Issues 

Workers Accu- Termination 

Location Union Involved Sept mulated Date Result 

Christie, Brown & 
Co Ltd . Toronto, 

Bakery Workers 
loc 426 







Christie Bread div 
ol Nabisco. Toronto, 

Bakery Workers 
loc 426 







Christie Bread (Div 
of Nabisco) & 
Christie Brown & Co 
Ltd , Toronto. Ont 

loc 647 
(Ind ) 







Biscuit David 
Montreal. Que 

Commerce Fed'n 







Cooperative Federee 
du Que (Legrade Inc . ) 
Princeville. Que 

Commerce Fed'n 







Alberta Brewers 
Agents Ltd , 
Edmonton, Alta, 

Brewery Workers 
loc 285 



, 100 





A Poupart, Montreal 

Teamsters (Ind ) 






Boutangene Christie 
Ltee. Montreal. Que 

Bakery Workers 
loc 55 







Firestone Tire & 
Rubber Co Ltd . 
Hamilton. Ont 

Rubber Workers 
loc 133 

1 200 






Goodyear Tire & 
Rubber Co ol Can 
Ltd , Bowmanville 

Rubber Workers 
loc 189 & 397 







Goodyear Tire & 
Rubber Co ol Can 
Ltd . Toronto, Ont 

Rubber Workers 
loc 232 

1 .750 






Matenaux de Const 
Domtar Ltee. 
Lasalle. Que 

United Paper- 
loc 658 


21 .600 



Rubbermaid (Can ) Ltd 
Mississauga. Ont 

Auto Workers 
loc 252 (CLC) 








Gates Rubber ot Can 
Ltd , Brantford. Ont 

Rubber Workers 
loc 733 






Uniroyal Ltd , 
Kitchener, Ont 

Rubber Workers 
loc 1-80 







Canadian General 
Tower Ltd . Cambridge 

Rubber Workers 
loc 862 


1 . 




1 1 

In sympathy with workers at 
Christie Bread (div of 
Nabiscol-Return of workers' 

Wages- Not reported 

In sympathy with strikers at 
Christie Bread & Christie 
Brown & Co .-Return of 

Wages- Not reported 

Cost-of-living ad|ustment- 

Wages & pension-Settled by 
mutual agreement, wage increase 

Wages-Not reported 

Not reported 

Wages & fringe benefits- 

Cost-of-living adiustment- 
Settled by mutual agreement 
cost-of-living increases 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 

Wages & fringe benefits-Wage 
increase & other benefits 

Wages-Settled through conci- 

Disciplinary matter- Return of 
workers on union decision 

Wages & fringe benefits- 

Suspension of one worker- 
Settled by mutual agreement 

Canadian Technical 
Tape, Montreal, Que 

Fed n of Paper 
workers (CNTU) 

180 1.260 1.260 Sept 20 

Wages, cost-of-living escala- 
tor clause- 


The Labour GazeMe-Jan 75 


Industry Starting 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Major Issues 









Sieberling Rubber 
Co Ltd. , Toronto, 

Rubber Workers 
loc 118 



730 Sept 25 

Sept 30 

Wages, cost-of-living clause- 
Settled through mediation 


Consolidated Textiles 
Ltd , Alexandria, 

Textile Workers 
Union loc 1664 

200 570 


June 10 
Sept 5 

Slowness in negotiations, wages 
-Not reported 

Peerless Rug Co Ltd 
Acton Vale, Que. 

Moose River Mills 
Ltd, Acton Vale. 

Textile Workers 
Union loc 1585-1 
Textile Workers 
Union loc 1576 

331 2.980 

129 1.550 



Aug 20 

Sept 15 

Aug 20 

Sept 19 

Wages- Not reported 
Wages-Not reported 


Penmans Ltd . 
Samt-Hyacinthe, Que. 

Textile Fed n 

330 6.600 27.720 May 31 



Canadian Forest 
Products. Huntting- 
Merritt, B C 

loc 1-217 

200 4.000 103.200 Sept 13 


Shorter hours, elimination of 
piece work-rates of pay 

Rexwood Products Ltd 
New Liskeard, Ont 

loc 2995 

112 2.240 6,950 July 3 

Wages & fringe benefits- 

Howard & Bienvenu 
LaSarre, Que 


Matelas Supreme Inc 
Samt-Narcisse. Que 

Industries Bourassa 
Saint-Raymond, Que 


Papetene Canadienne 
Joliette, Que 

Continental Can of 
Can Ltd. , Montreal, 

Sonoco Products Ltd 
Terrebonne, Que. 

Continental Can Co 
of Can. Ltd . Toronto 

loc 2876 

Building and 
Wood workers 
Fed n (CNTU) 

loc 2817 

Workers Fed n 

Paper Workers 
Fed n (CNTU) 

Fed n of Paper 
Workers (CNTU) 

Canadian Paper- 
loc 433 

200 3 . 000 

110 2.200 




20 , 360 

Aug 6 
Sept 24 

Jan 8 

900 Sept 20 

Sept 27 

180 3.600 11 .340 July 3 

105 3.680 3.680 Aug 12 

110 1.760 1.760 Sept. 9 

334 1,810 1.810 Sept 21 

Sept. 28 

Reduction of production 
premiums-Return of workers 
Settled by mutual agreement 

Wages & working conditions- 

Wages, cost-of-living adjust 
ment clause, hours of work- 
Wage increase 

Wages & (rings benefits- 

Wages holidays- 

Seniority . cost-of-living ad- 

Cost-of-living allowance- 
Settled by mutual agreement 

Continental Can Co 
of Can Ltd , 
Toronto, Ont 

Canadian Paper- 
loc 496 (CLC) 



700 Sept 22 

Sept. 28 

Cost-of-living allowance- 
Settled by mutual agreement 

Labour Gazette- Jan 75 



Industry Starting 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Major Issues 

Workers Accu- Termination 

Location Union Involved Sept mulated Date Result 

Continental Can Co 
ot Can Ltd . 
London, Ont . 

Chemical Workers 
loc 186 




Sept 24 
Sept 28 

Cost-of-living allowance- 
Not reported 

Rayonnier-Quebec Co 
Ltd , Port Cartier, 

Canadian Paper- 
workers Union 
loc 1125 (CLC) 




Sept 25 


C.I.P Containers 
Burlington, Ont. 

Canadian Paper- 
workers Union 
loc 949 (CLC) 




Sept 27 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 

Co. Inter de Papier 
du Can , Pomte-aux- 
Trembles. Que 

Canadian Paper- 
workers Union 
loc 849 (CLC) 




Sept. 27 



Noranda Metal Indus 
Ltd , Annacis Island 


Can Assoc of 
Industrial Mecha- 
nical Workers 
loc 4 (CCU) 

208 4.160 


June 1 

Wages, cost-of-living clause- 

Cominco Ltd 
Trail, B.C. 

Assoc of 
Commercial & 
Technical Employees 
loc 1705 
(CLC directly 

485 10.390 31,870 July 1 

Wages, cost-of-living clause, 
seniority rights, job evalulion- 

Cominco Ltd 
Trail, B.C 

Alcan Products (Can ) 
Ltd , Kingston, Ont 

Industrie Couture 
Ltee, Chicoutimi , Que 

Interprovincial Steel 
and Pipe Corp 
Regina. Sask 

loc 480 

loc 343 & Machi- 
nists loc 54 


loc 5890 

2,800 60.000 


200 1 . 330 

670 720 


July 1 


July 22 

Sept 3 


Sept 20 


Sept 29 

Wages, cost-of-living clause, 
seniority rights, job evalua- 
Wages, cost-of-living escala- 
tor clause-Settled through 
mediation, Wage increases 

Cost-of-living adjustment & 
wage parity with Alcan workers- 
Respecting picket lines of 
Steelworkers loc 5606- 

Interprovincial Steel 
and Pipe Corp 
Regina, Sask 

loc 5606 

450 480 


Sept 29 

Duration of contract- 

Canadian Lukens Ltd 
Rexdale, Ont 

loc 6644 

114 110 

110 Sept 30 

Wages & fringe benefits- 


Stanley Works of Can 
Ltd , Roxton Pond, 

loc 909 

258 5,160 


June 18 

Cost-of-living escalator 

Heroux Ltee. 
Longueuil, Que 


425 8,080 22,960 July 15 Wages & (rings benefits- 

Sept 30 Settled through conciliation 

Wage increase & cost-of-living 

Stanley Door Systems 
Ltd. , Wingham, Ont. 

loc 879 (Ind ) 




July 29 
Sept. 9 

Wages-Settled by mutual 


The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 






Duration in 


Workers " Accu- 

Involved Sept mulated 



Major Issues 


York Div -Borg 
Warner (Can ) Ltd 
Saint- Jerome, Que 

Cooper Tool Group 
Barrie, Ont. 

Cooper Tool Group Ltd. 
Port Hope. Ont. 

Velan Engineering 
Saint Laurent, Que 

loc 6333 

loc 6709 

loc 6497 

Fed n of Metal 
Trades Unions 

156 3.120 6,550 Aug 1 

174 3,480 6.090 Aug 12 

290 5,800 9.570 Aug 14 

320 1.600 5.760 Aug 14 

Sept 10 

Cost-of-living escalator 

Wages & fringe benefits- 

Wages & fringe benefits- 

Wages, cost-of-living clause- 
Cost-of-hving adjustment 

Babcock & Wilcox Can 
Ltd , Cambridge. 


Phoenix Steel 
Saint-Paul I'Ermite, 

Gould Manufacturing 
Ltd , St. Thomas. 

Sangamo Co Ltd 
Trois-Rivieres, Que. 

AP Parts of Can Ltd 
Etobicoke. Ont 

Inter Harvester Co 
of Can Ltd , 
Candiac. Que 

Massey Ferguson 
(3 plants). Toronto 
& Brantford. Ont 

Farr Co Ltd , 
Ville de Laval. 


Eaton Yale Ltd , 
St Catherines, Ont 


Loc 2859 

Sheet Metal 
Workers loc 116 

lOC 1975 

loc 1865 

Auto Workers 
loc 252 

loc 6617 

Auto Workers 
lOC 458 


UE loc 535 

853 16,210 16.210 Sept 4 

140 2.800 11 .760 May 31 

370 7.400 31.080 May 31 


230 4.600 






6 790 



July 15 
Sept 3 

Aug 19 

160 2.720 2,720 Sept. 6 

2,400 4,800 4.800 Sept 13 

Sept 16 

Sept 16 
Sept 23 

Sept 30 


Wages, fringe benefits- 

Wages, cost-of-living clause- 

Not reported- Not reported 

Wages & fringe benefits- 


Wages & fringe benefits- 
Settled by mutual agreement 
Wage increase & improved 

Suspension of six employees 
after study session- 
Not reported 


United Aircraft of 
■ Can Ltd , Longueuil 

Volvo Can Ltd. 
Halifax, N S 

Inter Harvester Co 
i of Can Ltd , 

ie Labour Gazette-Jan'75 

Auto Workers 
loc 510 (CLC) 

Auto Workers 
loc 720 (CLC) 

Auto Workers 
loc 127 

1,400 28.000 459.600 Jan 7 

185 1.480 10.730 June 21 

Sept. 13 

1.350 14,850 71,550 July 3 

Sept. 18 

Union security, wages, cost- 
of-living clause- 

Wages- Wage increase, settled 
through government interven- 

Cost-of-living formula, wages, 
voluntary overtime-Settled 
by mutual agreement 



Industry Starling 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Major Issues 

Workers Accu- Termination 

Location Union Involved Sept mulated Date Result 

Commodore Mobile 
Homes, Saint-Jean, 

United Textile 
loc 490 

121 2.420 7.380 July 5 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 

Prebuilt Industries 
Ltd . Lethbndge. 

loc 2998 




Aug 1 
Sept 9 

Wages & fringe benefits- 
Settled by mutual agreement 

Griffin Steel Foun- 
dries Ltd . 

Metal Trades 
Fed n (CSD) 

179 3.580 

6 270 

Aug 12 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 

Ingersoll Machine & 
Tool Ltd . 
Ingersoll. Ont 

loc 2918 

155 3, 100 4.960 Aug 14 

Wages, fringe benefits 

Bendix Home System 
Saint-Jerome, Que 

loc 2587 

335 1.010 4.030 Aug 20 

Sept 6 

Wages, cost-of-living ad|ust- 
ment-Settled through conci- 

Weatherhead Co 

Can Ltd . 

St. Thomas. Ont 


loc 1804 

200 200 200 Sept 9 

Sept 10 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 
Return of workers pending 
discussion between union and 

Glendale Corporation 
Strathroy. Ont 

loc 2374 

350 5.250 5.250 Sept 10 

Fringe benefits- 

Hawker Siddeley. 
Trenton Works. 
Trenton, N S 

loc 1231 

1.200 9.600 


Sept 1 1 
Sept 23 

Grievance- Return of workers 
under Cease and Desist Orders 

American Motors 
(Can ) Ltd . 
Brampton, Ont 

Auto Workers 
loc 1285 

1.365 15 020 


Sept 16 

Wages, compulsory overtime- 

Saint John Ship- 
building & Dry Dock 
Co Ltd . 
Saint John. N B 

Marine Workers 
loc 3 (CLC) 

1.300 6.500 6.500 Sept 19 

Sept. 26 

Wages-Return of workers 

Enamel and Heating 
Products Ltd , 
Amherst, N S 

loc 2231 

166 170 

170 Sept 26 

Sept 26 

Overtime pay & layoffs- 
Not reported 

General Motors of 

Can Ltd , 

St Catherines. Ont 

Auto Workers 
loc 199 

1 . 500 1 . 500 1 . 500 Sept 26 

Sept 26 

Finnq of two electricians- 
Workers reinstated 


Emerson Electrical U E 

(Motor Div ) Can Ltd loc 522 
Markham, Ont (CLC) 

245 4.900 20.340 June 1 

Wages, fringe benefits, com- 
pulsory overtime- 

Sperry Gyroscope 
Sperry Rand Can Ltd 
Ottawa. Ont 

Auto Workers 
loc 641 

150 600 8.550 June 17 

Sept 9 

Wages, cost-of-living escala- 
tor clause-Not reported 

Chromalox Canadian 
Co Ltd . 
Rexdale, Ont 

Auto Workers 
loc 252 

575 5, 180 27.610 July 6 

Sept 15 

Wages- Not reported 

Sola Basic Ltd. 
Etobicoke, Ont 

loc 1168 

165 3.300 5.780 Aug 12 

Wages & fringe benefits- 


The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 


Industry Starting 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Maior Issues 










General Abrasives 
(Can ) Ltd . 
Niagara Falls, Ont 

Chemical Workers 
loc 420 

162 3.080 

7.780 July 20 

Sept 30 

Cost -ol- living adjustment - 
Settled by mutual agreement 

The Exolon Co of 
Can Ltd . 
Thorold. Ont. 

Chemical Workers 
loc 582 

241 4.300 9. 120 Aug 4 

Sept 26 

Wages & fringe benefits- 
Settled by mutual agreement 
Wage increase 

Francon (1966) Ltd 
Montreal. Que. 

Building & 
Fed n (CNTU) 

850 17,000 18.700 Aug. 29 

Cost-of-living clause, 
voluntary overtime— 


Johnson & Johnson 
Montreal, Que 

United Textile 
loc 450 

650 5,850 29.900 July 11 

Sept 16 

Cost-of-living escalator 
clause-Not reported 

Canadisn Titanium 
Varennes. Que 

Fed n of Metal 
Trades Unions 

180 3,600 9.360 July 18 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 

Cf.nadian Industries 
Ltd . 
Brownsburg. Que 

loc 14138 

850 17.000 29.750 Aug 12 Cost-of-living adjustment- 

Canadian Industries 
Ltd . 
McMasterville, Que 

Fed n of Metal 
Trades Unions 

700 11.000 11.000 Sept 9 Wages- 


MCA Records 
Cornwall. Ont 

I U E 
loc 539 

156 310 310 Sept 27 Cost-of-living adjustment- 


Plastering Assoc 
of Toronto, 
Toronto. Ont 

loc 48 

250 5.000 


Oct 17 

Not reported- 

Construction Assoc 
of P E I , 
Various locations, 

loc 1079 



July 29 
Sept 1 

Wages- Settled by mutual agree- 

Hydro Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario 
Various areas, Ont 

loc 1788 

1 .500 30,000 37,700 July 31 

Allowances & jurisdictional 

Transportation & Utilities 


Montreal Urban 
Community Transit 
Commission , 
Montreal. Que 

Public Service 1.600 20,570 49 140 Aug 7 

Fedn (CNTU) Sept 19 

Suspension of 73 workers & 
cost-of-living adjustment- 
Abolition of suspensions & 
cost-of-living adjustment 

The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 



Industry Starting 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Major Issues 









"Canadian Lake Carriers 
Assoc , 

Great Lakes and St 
Lawrence River 

Service Guild 

427 8,240 15.560 Aug 8 

Sept 28 

Wages, cost-of-living escala- 
tor clause- Not reported 

"Canadian Lake 
Carriers Assoc . 
Great Lakes and St 
Lawrence River 

Canadian Marine 
Officers Union 

400 8.570 15.530 Aug. 8 

Wages, cost-of-living escala- 
tor clause- 

Toronto Transit 
Toronto, Ont 

Transit Union 
loc 113 
loc 235 

& Public 

Employees loc 2 

5.666 12.140 93.080 Aug 12 

Sept 4 

Wages, hours of work- 
Employees ordered back to 
work by Ontario Provincial 

Forest Industrial 
Relations (Three 
trucking companies) 
Southern Vancouver 
Island. B C 

loc- 80 

158 790 

790 Sept 4 

Sept . 1 1 

Wages & fringe benefits- 
Settled by mutual agreement 
Wage increase 

Rimouski Transport 
Ltee. Rimouski, Que 

loc 106 (Ind ) 

121 120 120 Sept 23 Grievance-Settled by mutual 

Sept 24 agreement 


'Five Grain Companies 
Vancouver. B C 

Gram Workers' 
Union loc 333 
(CLC directly 

602 12.040 

15.050 Aug 26 



Rimouski, Que 


loc 2200-Traflic 



359 7,180 11.130 Aug 16 

Cost-of-living adiustment- 

Quebec- Telephone 
Rimouski, Que 


loc 2200-Plant 



420 8,400 13.020 Aug 16 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 

Quebec- Telephone 
Rimouski, Que 


loc 2200-Office 

Employees & 



500 10.000 15.500 Aug 16 

Cost-of-living adjustment- 

"Mmistry of Transport 
Various locations, 


Union of Cana- 
dian Transport 

300 300 300 Sept 1 Wage parity with air traffic 

Sept 2 controllers-Return of workers 

after 24 hours 

The New Brunswick 
Telephone Co . 
Various locations. 
B C 

loc 1148 

430 860 860 Sept 2 Lack of progress in negotia- 

Sept 5 tions-Return of workers due 

to possible injunction. 


The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 


Industry Starling 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-rjays Major Issues 

Workers Accu- Termination 

Location Union Involved Sept mulated Date Result 

The New Brunswick 
Telephone Co . Ltd 
Various locations. 
B C 

loc 1148 



3.530 Sept 19 

Wages Alter suspensions tor 
alleged slowdowns - 


Churchill Falls 

Labrador Corp 

Churchill Falls. 

loc 255 




Sept 10 
Sept 13 

Suspension of three workers- 
Return of workers 


John Millen 
Montreal. Que 

(Ind ) 






Imperial Automotive 
Co. , Montreal. Que 

Auto Workers 
loc 1580 (CLC) 


1 . 100 

1. 100 




Not reported-Not reported 



Toronto Board of 
Education. Toronto, 

Various unions 

403 2.070 


July 24 
Sept 10 

Wages- Not reported 

North York Board of 
Education, Willowdale 

loc 3219 

236 940 3.540 Aug 11 Wages & fringe benefits- 

Sept 9 Settled through conciliation 

B C School Trustees 
Assoc , 

Various locations, 
B C 

Public Employees 
(Various locals) 

150 2.850 3,350 Aug 19 

Sept 30 

Wages-Not reported 

The Nipissing Board 
of Education, 
North Bay, Ont 

Public Employees 
loc 1165 



1 .410 

Aug 26 
Sept 6 

Wages-Settled by mutual 

Selkirk College & 
Eight School 
Various districts, 


Public Employees 
vanos locals 

410 4,780 5.600 Aug 29 Wages & fringe benefits- 

Sept 23 Settled by mutual agreement 

Peel County Board of 
Cooksville, Ont 

Public Employees 
loc 1628 

351 7,020 7,370 Aug. 30 

Wages & fringe benefits- 

University of Regma 
Regma, Sask 

CLC directly 230 460 460 Sept 9 

chartered loc 54 Sept 1 1 

Wages— Return of workers 

Vancouver School 
Board, Vancouver. 

Three School Boards 
Labrador City & 
Wabush, Nfld 

Assoc (Ind 

Assoc (Ind ) 

280 1.400 1,400 Sept 10 

Sept 17 

235 240 240 Sept 13 

Sept 16 

Wages & lime ofl with pay for 
professional development- 
Return of workers after 
appointment of industrial 
inquiry commissioner 

Slowness in negotiations- 
Return of teachers alter one 

The Labour Gazette- Jan 75 



Industry Starting 

Duration in Date 

Employer Man-days Major Issues 









University ot Sask 

University of Regina 

Saskatoon & Regina, 

CLC directly 
charterd loc 54 

1.281 4.120 

4.120 Sept. 26 

Wages & Innge benedts- 


Hopital Saint-Lambert 
Saint-Lambert, Que 





Sept 28 

Number ol employees- 

Public Administration 


City of Dorval 
Dorval, Que. 






Wages-Workers returned to 
work under injunction 

'Federal jurisdiction 


The Labour Gazette-Jan 75 


Industrial Natations Research In Canada (annual) An inventory ol industrial 
relations lessai c h undartalian by the Department other government departments, 
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Labour Orgenixatlone In Canada (annual). Contains • brief oommsntary. tha lataat 
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Strikes and Lockouts In C anada (annual) Furnishes a record ol strikes and 
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Woman In tha Labour Force. Facts and Figures (1973 edition) 108 tables of 

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Labour Standards in Canada Sets out standards In effect under federal and 
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Workman's Compensation In Canada. Deals with compensation lor employment 
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Women's Bureau '70. Papers dealing with discriminatory provisions In legislation 
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Women's Bureau It Papers dealing with statistical data on working women; neod 
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Women's Bureau '73. Papers dealing with union responsibility tor equal opportunity 
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Safety Perspective SScurlta. Periodical designed to assist employers and 
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Canada Occupational Safety Manual. Intended as a guide to persons charged with 
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i \iL>*catk>B«